Community (ecology)

A bear with a salmon. Interspecific interactions such as predation are a key aspect of community ecology.
a) A trophic pyramid showing the different trophic levels in a community. b) A food web of the same community
A simple trophic cascade diagram. On the right shows when wolves are absent, showing an increase in elks and reduction in vegetation growth. The left one shows when wolves are present and controlling the elk population.
Table visualising size-symmetric competition, using fish as consumers and crabs as resources.
A generalised graph of a predator-prey population density cycle

Group or association of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area at the same time, also known as a biocoenosis, biotic community, biological community, ecological community, or life assemblage.

- Community (ecology)

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Natural landscaping

Use of native plants, including trees, shrubs, groundcover, and grasses which are indigenous to the geographic area of the garden.

Natural landscaping using pine, redbud, maple, and American sweetgum with leaf litter.
Natural landscaping with pine leaf litter mulch
Banksia spinulosa, a Sydney local plant which attracts wildlife
A small prairie garden.

Native plants also support populations of native birds, insects, and other animals that they coevolved with, thus promoting a healthy community of organisms.

Biological integrity

Associated with how "pristine" an environment is and its function relative to the potential or original state of an ecosystem before human alterations were imposed.

Land management has preserved the natural characteristics of Hopetoun Falls, Australia while allowing ample access for visitors.

The more an environment and its original processes are altered, the less biological integrity it holds for the community as a whole.

Phage ecology

Bacteriophages (phages), potentially the most numerous "organisms" on Earth, are the viruses of bacteria (more generally, of prokaryotes ).

Structural model at atomic resolution of bacteriophage T4

Community ecology studies those characteristics of communities that either are not apparent or which are much less apparent if a community consists of only a single population.

Ediacaran biota

Taxonomic period classification that consists of all life forms that were present on Earth during the Ediacaran Period (c.

Life in the Ediacaran Period
Palaeontologist Guy Narbonne examining Ediacaran fossils in Newfoundland
Modern cyanobacterial-algal mat, salty lake on the White Sea seaside
The fossil Charniodiscus is barely distinguishable from the "elephant skin" texture on this cast.
A sea pen, a modern cnidarian bearing a passing resemblance to Charnia
A single-celled xenophyophore in the Galapagos Rift
Thin sections and substrates of a variety of Ediacaran fossils
A modern lichen, Hypogymnia
Global ice sheets may have delayed or prevented the establishment of multicellular life.
Kimberella may have had a predatory or grazing lifestyle.
Cambrian animals such as Waptia may have competed with, or fed upon, Ediacaran life-forms.
Reconstruction of fossil soils and their biota in the Mistaken Point Formation of Newfoundland
Reconstruction of Ediacaran biota and their soils in the Ediacara Member of the Rawnsley Quartzite in the Flinders Ranges, South Australia

This, and the faunas' considerable temporal overlap, makes it unlikely that they represent evolutionary stages or temporally distinct communities.


International peer-reviewed English-language journal published by Springer since 1968 .

Papers focus on population ecology, plant-animal interactions, ecosystem ecology, community ecology, global change ecology, conservation ecology, behavioral ecology and physiological ecology.

Skin flora

Depiction of the human body and bacteria that predominate
Scanning electron microscope image of Staphylococcus epidermidis one of roughly a thousand bacteria species present on human skin. Though usually not pathogenic, it can cause skin infections and even life-threatening illnesses in those that are immunocompromised.
ecology of the 20 sites on the skin studied in the Human Microbiome Project

Skin flora, also called skin microbiota, refers to microbiota (communities of microorganisms) that reside on the skin, typically human skin.


Process of organisms consuming fungi.

A slug (Lehmannia nyctelia) feeding on a mushroom
A banana slug feeding on Amanita
Euprenolepis procera, the only species of ant known to harvest mushrooms, feeding on a Pleurotus mushroom
Monotropastrum humile, a myco-heterotroph dependent on fungi throughout its lifetime
Gallery of Xylosandrus crassiusculus split open, with larvae and black fungus
Termitomyces mushrooms growing out of a termite nest

It is not known what effects bacterial mycophagy has on the fungal communities in nature.

Assembly rules

Community assembly rules are a set of controversial rules in ecology, first proposed by Jared Diamond.

Biodiversity of a coral reef. Corals adapt to and modify their environment by forming calcium carbonate skeletons. This provides growing conditions for future generations and forms a habitat for many other species.

This is the reason why Diamond's results sparked nearly two decades worth of controversy in the literature, from the late seventies through the late nineties and is considered a turning point in community ecology.

Adolphe Dureau de la Malle

Saint Dominican geographer, naturalist, historian and artist.

Saint Dominican Creoles

He was the first to use the term succession (prior to Steenstrups use) about an ecological phenomenon and probably the first to use the term community (ecology) (societé) for an assemblage of (plant) individuals of different species (prior to Karl Möbius).

Storage effect

Mathematical models developed in theoretical ecology predict complex food webs are less stable than simple webs.

The storage effect is a coexistence mechanism proposed in the ecological theory of species coexistence, which tries to explain how such a wide variety of similar species are able to coexist within the same ecological community or guild.