Compact disc

CDCDsCD singleAudio CDcompact discsphysicalaudio-CD12cmCDdisccompact disk
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.wikipedia
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Optical disc

optical mediaoptical data storagedisc
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology.
In computing and optical disc recording technologies, an optical disc (OD) is a flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium ) on one of its flat surfaces.

Philips

Philips ElectronicsPhillipsRoyal Philips Electronics
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.
The company started making electric shavers in 1939 under the Philishave brand, and post-war they developed the Compact Cassette format and co-developed the Compact Disc format with Sony, as well as numerous other technologies.

CD-R

CDRrecordable CDrecordable CDs
Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video Compact Disc (VCD), Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD), Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, and Enhanced Music CD.
A CD-R disc is a compact disc that can be written once and read arbitrarily many times.

CD player

CD playersCDcompact disc player
The first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan.
A CD player is an electronic device that plays audio compact discs, which are a digital optical disc data storage format.

Super Video CD

SVCDChina Video DiscChina Video Disc (CVD)
Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video Compact Disc (VCD), Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD), Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, and Enhanced Music CD.
Super Video CD (Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a digital format for storing video on standard compact discs.

Video CD

VCDVCDsvideo disk
Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video Compact Disc (VCD), Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD), Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, and Enhanced Music CD.
The format is a standard digital format for storing video on a compact disc.

CD-RW

rewritable CDsCD-MOCD-R/RW
Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video Compact Disc (VCD), Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD), Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, and Enhanced Music CD.
A CD-RW compact disc (CD-RWs) can be written, read, erased, and written again arbitrarily many times.

Mini CD

MCD3" CDmini-CD
The Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 mm; they are sometimes used for CD singles, storing up to 24 minutes of audio, or delivering device drivers.
Mini CDs, or pocket CDs, are CDs with a smaller diameter and one third the storage capacity of a standard 120 mm disc.

Sony

Sony CorporationSony BMG MusicSony Music
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971.
He encouraged the development of the Compact Disc in the 1970s and 1980s, and of the PlayStation in the early 1990s.

LaserDisc

LDlaser disclaserdiscs
The compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam Although originally dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
The technologies and concepts behind LaserDisc were the foundation for later optical disc formats including Compact Disc (CD), DVD and Blu-ray (BD).

Compact Disc Digital Audio

Audio CDCDRed Book
The format was originally developed to store and play only sound recordings (CD-DA) but was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM). After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980.
Compact Disc Digital Audio (CDDA or CD-DA), also known as Audio CD, is the standard format for audio compact discs.

Rainbow Books

Orange BookRed BookRainbow book
After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980.
The Rainbow Books are a collection of CD format specifications.

Green Book (CD standard)

Green BookCD-iGreen Book CD-i
Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video Compact Disc (VCD), Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD), Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, and Enhanced Music CD.
The "Green Book", formally known as the "CD-i Full Functional Specification", is a CD standard announced in 1986 by Philips and Sony that defines the format for interactive, multimedia compact discs designed for CD-i players.

Kees Schouhamer Immink

Kees ImminkDr. Kees ImminkKees A. Schouhamer Immink
Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology.
Kornelis Antonie "Kees" Schouhamer Immink (born 18 December 1946) is a Dutch scientist, inventor, and entrepreneur, who pioneered and advanced the era of digital audio, video, and data recording, including popular digital media such as Compact Disc, DVD and Blu-ray Disc.

PCM adaptor

Sony F1 two-trackPCM-1600Sony PCM-F1
His team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973.
This digital audio system was used for mastering early Compact Discs.

Norio Ohga

Sony executive Norio Ohga, later CEO and chairman of Sony, and Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism.
Norio Ohga, otherwise spelled Norio Oga (January 29, 1930 – April 23, 2011), was the former president and chairman of Sony Corporation, credited with spurring the development of the compact disc as a commercially viable audio format.

Cassette tape

cassetteCSaudio cassette
Philips coined the term compact disc in line with another audio product, the Compact Cassette, and contributed the general manufacturing process, based on video LaserDisc technology.
Between the early 1970s and the early 2000s, the cassette was one of the two most common formats for prerecorded music, first alongside the LP record and later the compact disc (CD).

Heitaro Nakajima

Sony executive Norio Ohga, later CEO and chairman of Sony, and Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971.
Heitaro Nakajima was a Japanese digital audio pioneer, who led Sony's Compact Disc project in the 1970s.

Eight-to-fourteen modulation

EFMEFM codeEFMPlus
Philips also contributed eight-to-fourteen modulation (EFM), which offers a certain resilience to defects such as scratches and fingerprints, while Sony contributed the error-correction method, CIRC.
Eight-to-fourteen modulation (EFM) is a data encoding technique – formally, a line code – used by compact discs (CD), laserdiscs (LD) and pre-Hi-MD MiniDiscs.

Music industry

Musicmusic businessrecording industry
From the early 2000s CDs were increasingly being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U.S. had dropped about 50% from their peak; however, they remained one of the primary distribution methods for the music industry.
In the first decade of the 2000s, digitally downloaded and streamed music became more popular than buying physical recordings (e.g. CDs, records and tapes).

Dire Straits

The first artist to sell a million copies on CD was Dire Straits, with their 1985 album Brothers in Arms.
Their most commercially successful album was Brothers in Arms (1985), which has sold more than 30 million copies and was the first album to sell a million copies on the compact disc (CD) format.

Langenhagen

Philips established the Polydor Pressing Operations plant in Langenhagen near Hannover, Germany, and quickly passed a series of milestones.
On August 17, 1982, the world's first mass production of Compact Discs began in Langenhagen.

An Alpine Symphony

Eine AlpensinfonieAlpine SymphonyEin Alpensinfonie
The first test pressing was of a recording of Richard Strauss's Eine Alpensinfonie (An Alpine Symphony) played by the Berlin Philharmonic and conducted by Herbert von Karajan, who had been enlisted as an ambassador for the format in 1979.
In 1981 a recording of An Alpine Symphony, made with Herbert von Karajan conducting the Berlin Philharmonic, became the first work ever to be pressed on the compact disc format.

Run-length limited

RLLrun length limitedMFM
A year later, in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio (44,100 Hz sampling rate and 16-bit resolution) using MFM modulation.
Early disk drives used very simple encoding schemes, such as RLL (0,1) FM code, followed by RLL (1,3) MFM code which were widely used in hard disk drives until the mid-1980s and are still used in digital optical discs such as CD, DVD, MD, Hi-MD and Blu-ray.

Philips Natuurkundig Laboratorium

NatLabPhilips ResearchPhilips Research Laboratories
Although originally dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
The result was a slew of commercial and fundamental results, including the cassette tape in 1962, Plumbicon camera tube and the Video Long Play disc, which was the technological basis for the 1980 compact disc.