Composite armour

composite armorcompositecomposite ceramic and metal matricesAdditional armorceramic fractal armorceramic-aramidcomposite add-on armorcomposite ceramic armorcomposite matrixcomposites
Composite armour is a type of vehicle armour consisting of layers of different material such as metals, plastics, ceramics or air.wikipedia
150 Related Articles

High-explosive anti-tank warhead

HEAThigh explosive anti-tankhigh-explosive anti-tank
Its primary purpose is to help defeat high explosive anti-tank (HEAT) projectiles.
The HEAT warhead has become less effective against tanks and other armored vehicles due to the use of composite armor, explosive-reactive armor, and active protection systems which destroy the HEAT warhead before it hits the tank.

Vehicle armour

armored vehiclearmoured vehiclearmour
Composite armour is a type of vehicle armour consisting of layers of different material such as metals, plastics, ceramics or air.
Modern aircraft powered by jet engines usually have them fitted with a sort of armour in the form of an aramid composite kevlar bandage around the fan casing or debris containment walls built into the casing of their gas turbine engines to prevent injuries or airframe damage should the fan, compressor, or turbine blades break free.

T-64

tanksBAT-2T-64 tank
The first widespread use of a composite armour appears to have been on the Soviet T-64.
It introduced a number of advanced features including composite armor, a compact engine and transmission, and a smoothbore 125-mm gun equipped with an autoloader to allow the crew to be reduced to three so the tank could be smaller and lighter.

Rolled homogeneous armour

RHArolled homogeneous armorhomogeneous armor
Lightweight and small, HEAT projectiles could nevertheless penetrate hundreds of millimetres of the hardest steel armours.
Since World War II, because of a reduction in effectiveness against new weapons (mainly shaped charges and improved kinetic energy penetrators), RHA has largely been superseded by composite armour, which incorporates air spaces and materials such as ceramics or plastics in addition to steel, and explosive reactive armour.

Combination K

It used an armour known as Combination K, which apparently is glass-reinforced plastic sandwiched between inner and outer steel layers.
Combination K was a type of composite armor.

Shaped charge

hollow chargeMunroe effectshaped-charge
The capability of most materials for defeating HEAT follows the "density law", which states that the penetration of shaped charge jets is proportional to the square root of the shaped charge liner density (typically copper) divided by the square root of the target density.
The figure is for basic steel plate, not for the composite armor, reactive armor, or other types of modern armor.

Chobham armour

Chobham armorChobhamBurlington
The most common type of composite armour today is Chobham armour, first developed and used by the British in the experimental FV 4211 tank, which was based on Chieftain tank components.
Chobham armour is the informal name of a composite armour developed in the 1960s at the British tank research centre on Chobham Common, Surrey.

M1 Abrams

M1A1 AbramsM1A2 AbramsM1A1
Chobham was such an improvement that it was soon used on the new U.S. M1 Abrams main battle tank (MBT) as well.
Conceived for modern armored ground warfare and now one of the heaviest tanks in service at nearly 68 short tons (almost 62 metric tons), it introduced several innovative features, including a multifuel turbine engine, sophisticated Chobham composite armor, a computer fire control system, separate ammunition storage in a blow-out compartment, and NBC protection for crew safety.

Composite material

compositecompositescomposite materials
The most common type of composite armour today is Chobham armour, first developed and used by the British in the experimental FV 4211 tank, which was based on Chieftain tank components.
Chobham armour is a special type of composite armour used in military applications.

Main battle tank

MBTmain battle tankstank
Chobham was such an improvement that it was soon used on the new U.S. M1 Abrams main battle tank (MBT) as well.
Cold War-era development of more powerful engines, better suspension systems and lighter weight composite armor allowed a tank to have the firepower of a super-heavy tank, armor protection of a heavy tank, and mobility of a light tank all in a package with the weight of a medium tank.

Ceramic

ceramicsceramic materialsceramicist
Composite armour is a type of vehicle armour consisting of layers of different material such as metals, plastics, ceramics or air.

T-90

T-90ST-90AT-90 Bhishma
Soviet/Russian main battle tanks such as T-90 s T-80Us and the Chinese Type 96/99s use composite armour in tandem with explosive reactive armour (ERA), making it hard for shaped charge munitions such as HEAT projectiles and missile warheads to penetrate the frontal and a portion of their side armour.
Standard protective measures include a blend of steel and composite armour, smoke grenade dischargers, Kontakt-5 explosive-reactive armour and the Shtora infrared ATGM jamming system.

MEXAS

IBD-DeisenrothModular Expandable Armor System
Nevertheless, they are often surprisingly effective; upgrades with MEXAS ceramic armour to Canadian M113s were carried out in the 1990s, after it was realized that it would offer more protection than newly built IFVs like the M2 Bradley.
The Modular Expandable Armor System (MEXAS) is a composite armour system developed by the German company IBD Deisenroth Engineering.

Karrar (tank)

KarrarKarrar MBT
While many of these vehicles feature the composite armour permanently integrated with the vehicle, the Japanese Type 10 and Type 90 Kyū-maru MBTs, French Leclerc, Iranian Karrar,Turkish Altay, Indian Arjun, Italian Ariete and Chinese Type 96/98 and Type 99 tanks use a modular composite armour, where sections of the composite armour can be easily and quickly switched out or upgraded with armour modules.
The Karrar is supposedly fitted with latest generation of composite armor, with explosive reactive armor (ERA) panels mounted on the front of the hull and turret.

Leopard 2

Leopard 2A4Leopard 2A6Leopard tank
The German Leopard 2A5 featured distinctive arrowhead laminated armour modules that was mounted directly onto the turret composite arrays, increasing protection markedly above the previous 2A4 model.
The weight limit was increased from MLC50 to MLC60, which equals approximately 55 t. The turret T14 was modified to test a new armour configuration, taking on a blockier-looking appearance as a result of using vertical modules of spaced multilayer armour.

Ariete

C1 Ariete
While many of these vehicles feature the composite armour permanently integrated with the vehicle, the Japanese Type 10 and Type 90 Kyū-maru MBTs, French Leclerc, Iranian Karrar,Turkish Altay, Indian Arjun, Italian Ariete and Chinese Type 96/98 and Type 99 tanks use a modular composite armour, where sections of the composite armour can be easily and quickly switched out or upgraded with armour modules.
The Ariete's armour is a steel and composite blend, similar to the British Challenger 2 and the American M1 Abrams.

Advanced Modular Armor Protection

AMAP
Advanced Modular Armor Protection (AMAP) is modular composite armour concept, developed by the German company IBD Deisenroth Engineering.

Kanchan armour

Kanchan
Kanchan Armour is the name informally given to a modular composite armour developed by India.

Reactive armour

explosive reactive armourexplosive reactive armorreactive armor
Soviet/Russian main battle tanks such as T-90 s T-80Us and the Chinese Type 96/99s use composite armour in tandem with explosive reactive armour (ERA), making it hard for shaped charge munitions such as HEAT projectiles and missile warheads to penetrate the frontal and a portion of their side armour. The Soviets also invested heavily in reactive armour, which allowed them some ability to control quality, even after production.

Type 90 Kyū-maru

Type 90Type 90 Kyu-maruType 90 Kyū-maru Tank
While many of these vehicles feature the composite armour permanently integrated with the vehicle, the Japanese Type 10 and Type 90 Kyū-maru MBTs, French Leclerc, Iranian Karrar,Turkish Altay, Indian Arjun, Italian Ariete and Chinese Type 96/98 and Type 99 tanks use a modular composite armour, where sections of the composite armour can be easily and quickly switched out or upgraded with armour modules.
The profile of the Type 90 is similar to the German Leopard 2A4 and it uses modular ceramic and steel composite armor, common in contemporary tank designs.

Type 10

JSW 120mm gunType 10 Main Battle Tank
While many of these vehicles feature the composite armour permanently integrated with the vehicle, the Japanese Type 10 and Type 90 Kyū-maru MBTs, French Leclerc, Iranian Karrar,Turkish Altay, Indian Arjun, Italian Ariete and Chinese Type 96/98 and Type 99 tanks use a modular composite armour, where sections of the composite armour can be easily and quickly switched out or upgraded with armour modules.

Marvin Heemeyer

KilldozerKilldozer (bulldozer)2004 bulldozer rampage
In 2004, Marvin Heemeyer used an ad hoc composite armour on his Komatsu D355A bulldozer ("Killdozer") used in a rampage in response to a dispute with the city he lived in over a zoning issue.
In places, this armor was over 1 ft thick, consisting of 5000-PSI Quikrete concrete mix sandwiched between sheets of tool steel (acquired from an automotive dealer in Denver), to make ad-hoc composite armor.

Kinetic energy penetrator

APFSDSkinetic energypenetrators
The most advanced versions of these armours such as the Relikt and Kontakt-5 armour provide protection not only against shaped charges but also kinetic energy penetrators by using the explosive force to shear the projectile apart.
They have been widely used against armour in the past and still have a role but are less effective against modern composite armour, such as Chobham as used on main battle tanks today.

Metal

metalsmetal ionsmetal ion
Composite armour is a type of vehicle armour consisting of layers of different material such as metals, plastics, ceramics or air.