Composite video

compositeCVBScomposite video signalanalog videocomposite colorcomposite-videosyncVFaudio-videoComposite (RCA)
Composite video is an analog video transmission that carries standard definition video typically at 480i or 576i resolution as a single channel.wikipedia
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Component video

componentRGBRGBHV
Video information is encoded on one channel, unlike the higher-quality S-video (two channels) and the even higher-quality component video (three or more channels).
Component video can be contrasted with composite video (NTSC, PAL or SECAM) in which all the video information is combined into a single line level signal that is used in analog television.

Chrominance

chromachroma signalcolor
The color video signal is a linear combination of the luminance of the picture and a modulated subcarrier which carries the chrominance or color information, a combination of hue and saturation.
In composite video signals, the U and V signals modulate a color subcarrier signal, and the result is referred to as the chrominance signal; the phase and amplitude of this modulated chrominance signal correspond approximately to the hue and saturation of the color.

Colorburst

color burstcolourburstburst
A gated and filtered signal derived from the color subcarrier, called the burst or colorburst, is added to the horizontal blanking interval of each line (excluding lines in the vertical sync interval) as a synchronizing signal and amplitude reference for the chrominance signals.
Colorburst is an analog video, composite video signal generated by a video-signal generator used to keep the chrominance subcarrier synchronized in a color television signal.

SECAM

SÉCAMCIS-SECAMSECAM L
There are three dominant variants of composite video: NTSC, PAL, and SECAM.
Dot crawl patterns can be completely removed by connecting the display to the signal source through a cable or signal format different from composite video (yellow RCA cable) or a coaxial cable, such as S-Video, which carries the chroma signal in a separate band all its own, leaving the luma to use its entire band, including the usually empty parts when they are needed.

PAL

colour television25pPAL-N
There are three dominant variants of composite video: NTSC, PAL, and SECAM.
Both the PAL and the NTSC system use a quadrature amplitude modulated subcarrier carrying the chrominance information added to the luminance video signal to form a composite video baseband signal.

LaserDisc

LDlaser discLaserVision
Most home analog video equipment record a signal in (roughly) composite format: LaserDiscs store a true composite signal, while consumer videotape formats (including VHS and Betamax) and commercial and industrial tape formats (including U-Matic) use modified composite signals (generally known as color-under).
Although appearing similar to compact discs or DVDs, LaserDiscs used analog video stored in the composite domain (having a video bandwidth approximately equivalent to the 1 in C-Type VTR format) with analog FM stereo sound and PCM digital audio.

D-2 (video)

D2D-2
The professional D-2 videocassette format digitally records and reproduces composite video signals using PCM encoding of the analog signal on the magnetic tape.
D-2 is a professional digital videocassette format created by Ampex and introduced on 1988 at the NAB Show as a composite video alternative to the component video D-1 format.

Subcarrier

subcarrierssub-carrierFM stereo subcarrier
A gated and filtered signal derived from the color subcarrier, called the burst or colorburst, is added to the horizontal blanking interval of each line (excluding lines in the vertical sync interval) as a synchronizing signal and amplitude reference for the chrominance signals.
In RF-transmitted composite video, subcarriers remain in the baseband signal after main carrier demodulation to be separated in the receiver.

Analog television

analoganalogueanalogue television
A gated and filtered signal derived from the color subcarrier, called the burst or colorburst, is added to the horizontal blanking interval of each line (excluding lines in the vertical sync interval) as a synchronizing signal and amplitude reference for the chrominance signals.
The video carrier is demodulated to give a composite video signal; this contains luminance, chrominance and synchronization signals; this is identical to the video signal format used by analog video devices such as VCRs or CCTV cameras.

BNC connector

BNCBayonet Niell-ConcelmanBNC connectors
BNC connectors and higher quality coaxial cable are often used in professional television studios and post-production applications.
The BNC connector is used for composite video on commercial video devices.

Video

analog videovideo albumvideo recording
Most home analog video equipment record a signal in (roughly) composite format: LaserDiscs store a true composite signal, while consumer videotape formats (including VHS and Betamax) and commercial and industrial tape formats (including U-Matic) use modified composite signals (generally known as color-under). Composite video is an analog video transmission that carries standard definition video typically at 480i or 576i resolution as a single channel.
When combined into one channel, as is the case, among others with NTSC, PAL and SECAM it is called composite video.

RCA connector

RCARCA jackphono
In home applications, the composite video signal is typically connected using an RCA connector, normally yellow.
They are often color-coded, yellow for composite video, red for the right audio channel, and white or black for the left channel of stereo audio.

Commodore 64

C6464Commodore
Sometimes this modulator was built into the product (such as video game consoles, VCRs, or the Atari, Commodore 64, or TRS-80 CoCo home-computers) and sometimes it was an external unit powered by the computer (in the case of the TI-99/4A or some Apple modulators) or with an independent power supply.
Like the Apple IIe, the C64 could also output a composite video signal, avoiding the RF modulator altogether.

Composite monitor

composite video monitor
But because composite video has a well-established market for both devices that convert it to channel 3/4 outputs, as well as devices that convert things like VGA to composite, it has offered opportunities to repurpose older composite monitors for newer devices.
A composite monitor is any analog video display that receives input in the form of an analog composite video signal to a defined specification.

Dot crawl

Chroma Crawl
Just as the modulation and demodulation of RF degrades quality, the combining of component signals to form the composite signal does the same, causing a checkerboard video artifact known as dot crawl.
Dot crawl is a visual defect of color analog video standards when signals are transmitted as composite video, as in terrestrial broadcast television.

Home computer

home computershomehome computing
Some devices that connect to a TV, such as VCRs, older video game consoles and home computers, output a composite signal.
Although dedicated composite or "green screen" computer displays were available for this market segment and offered a sharper display, a monitor was often a later purchase made only after users had bought a floppy disk drive, printer, modem, and the other pieces of a full system.

Texas Instruments TI-99/4A

TI-99/4ATI 99/4ATI-99/4
Sometimes this modulator was built into the product (such as video game consoles, VCRs, or the Atari, Commodore 64, or TRS-80 CoCo home-computers) and sometimes it was an external unit powered by the computer (in the case of the TI-99/4A or some Apple modulators) or with an independent power supply.
Composite video and audio are output through another port on NTSC-based machines, and combine through an external RF modulator for use with a television.

S-Video

A/VS videoS-Video out
Video information is encoded on one channel, unlike the higher-quality S-video (two channels) and the even higher-quality component video (three or more channels).
By separating the black-and-white and coloring signals, it achieves better image quality than composite video, but has lower color resolution than component video.

Videocassette recorder

VCRvideo cassette recorderVCRs
BNC connectors were also used for composite video connections on early home VCRs, often accompanied by either RCA connector or a 5-pin DIN connector for audio.
Most new standalone VCRs in the US since then can only record from external baseband sources (usually composite video), including CECBs which (by NTIA mandate) all have composite outputs, as well as those ATSC tuners (including TVs) and cable boxes that come with composite outputs.

RF modulator

RFChannel 3/4 outputB/W or Color TV
But because composite video has a well-established market for both devices that convert it to channel 3/4 outputs, as well as devices that convert things like VGA to composite, it has offered opportunities to repurpose older composite monitors for newer devices. This may then be converted to RF with an external box known as an RF modulator that generates the proper carrier (often for channel 3 or 4 in North America, channel 36 in Europe).
Since later television designs include composite, S-Video, and component video jacks, which skip the modulation and demodulation steps, modulators are no longer included as standard equipment, and RF modulators are now largely a third-party product, purchased primarily to run newer equipment such as DVD players with an old television set.

Digital video

videodigitaldigitally
Modern day devices with analog outputs have typically omitted the modulator option in favor of composite and S-video outputs (or have switched to using HDMI or other digital video formats) as composite and S-video have become more common as inputs for TVs.
They operated by taking a standard analog composite video input and digitizing it internally.

Closed captioning

closed captionsclosed captioncaptioning
Examples of these extensions include teletext, closed captioning, digital information regarding the show title, transmitting a set of reference colors that allows TV sets to automatically correct the hue maladjustments common with the NTSC color encoding system, etc.
They are output by the player to the composite video (or an available RF connector) for a connected TV's built-in decoder or a set-top decoder as usual.