Compound (linguistics)

compoundcompound wordcompoundscompoundingcompound wordscompound nounscompoundednominal compoundlinguistic compoundCompound noun and adjective
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word or sign) that consists of more than one stem.wikipedia
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Word

wordsverballexical
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word or sign) that consists of more than one stem.
A complex word will typically include a root and one or more affixes (rock-s, red-ness, quick-ly, run-ning, un-expect-ed), or more than one root in a compound (black-board, sand-box).

Affix

suffixaffixesaffixation
The addition of affix morphemes to words (such as suffixes or prefixes, as in employ → employment) should not be confused with nominal composition, as this is actually morphological derivation.

Bahuvrihi

Bahuvrīhiadjectival compoundbahuvrihi compound
An exocentric compound (called a bahuvrihi compound in the Sanskrit tradition) is a hyponym of some unexpressed semantic category (such as a person, plant, or animal): none (neither) of its components can be perceived as a formal head, and its meaning often cannot be transparently guessed from its constituent parts.
A bahuvrihi compound (from बहुव्रीहि, literally meaning "much rice" or "having much rice", but denoting a rich man) is a type of compound that denotes a referent by specifying a certain characteristic or quality the referent possesses.

Tatpurusha

tatpuruṣatatpurusaSanskrit
(Such compounds were called tatpuruṣa in the Sanskrit tradition.)
In Sanskrit grammar a compound is a dependent determinative compound, i.e. a compound XY meaning a type of Y which is related to X in a way corresponding to one of the grammatical cases of X.

Endocentric and exocentric

exocentricendocentric
An exocentric compound (called a bahuvrihi compound in the Sanskrit tradition) is a hyponym of some unexpressed semantic category (such as a person, plant, or animal): none (neither) of its components can be perceived as a formal head, and its meaning often cannot be transparently guessed from its constituent parts. An endocentric compound consists of a head, i.e. the categorical part that contains the basic meaning of the whole compound, and modifiers, which restrict this meaning.
A grammatical construction (for instance, a phrase or compound) is said to be endocentric if it fulfils the same linguistic function as one of its parts, and exocentric if it does not.

Incorporation (linguistics)

incorporationnoun incorporationincorporated
Also common in English is another type of verb–noun (or noun–verb) compound, in which an argument of the verb is incorporated into the verb, which is then usually turned into a gerund, such as breastfeeding, finger-pointing, etc. The noun is often an instrumental complement.
Incorporation is a phenomenon by which a grammatical category, such as a verb, forms a compound with its direct object (object incorporation) or adverbial modifier, while retaining its original syntactic function.

Head (linguistics)

headheadsheaded
An endocentric compound consists of a head, i.e. the categorical part that contains the basic meaning of the whole compound, and modifiers, which restrict this meaning.
Analogously, the head of a compound is the stem that determines the semantic category of that compound.

Donaudampfschiffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft

DonaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaftskapitänDonaudampfschifffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft
German examples include Farbfernsehgerät (color television set), Funkfernbedienung (radio remote control), and the often quoted jocular word Donaudampfschifffahrtsgesellschaftskapitänsmütze (originally only two Fs, Danube-Steamboat-Shipping Company captain['s] hat), which can of course be made even longer and even more absurd, e.g. Donaudampfschifffahrtsgesellschaftskapitänsmützenreinigungsausschreibungsverordnungsdiskussionsanfang ("beginning of the discussion of a regulation on tendering of Danube steamboat shipping company captain hats") etc. According to several editions of the Guinness Book of World Records, the longest published German word has 79 letters and is Donaudampfschiffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft ("Association for Subordinate Officials of the Main Electric[ity] Maintenance Building of the Danube Steam Shipping"), but there is no evidence that this association ever actually existed.
Donaudampfschiffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft is a compound word that serves as an example of the virtually unlimited compounding of nouns that is possible in many Germanic languages.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
For example, the German compound Kapitänspatent consists of the lexemes Kapitän (sea captain) and Patent (license) joined by an -s- (originally a genitive case suffix); and similarly, the Latin lexeme paterfamilias contains the archaic genitive form familias of the lexeme familia (family).
Like the other Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds in which the first noun modifies the category given by the second: Hundehütte ("dog hut"; specifically: "dog kennel").

Donaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaft

Erste DonaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaftDDSGDanube-Steamboat-Shipping Company
German examples include Farbfernsehgerät (color television set), Funkfernbedienung (radio remote control), and the often quoted jocular word Donaudampfschifffahrtsgesellschaftskapitänsmütze (originally only two Fs, Danube-Steamboat-Shipping Company captain['s] hat), which can of course be made even longer and even more absurd, e.g. Donaudampfschifffahrtsgesellschaftskapitänsmützenreinigungsausschreibungsverordnungsdiskussionsanfang ("beginning of the discussion of a regulation on tendering of Danube steamboat shipping company captain hats") etc. According to several editions of the Guinness Book of World Records, the longest published German word has 79 letters and is Donaudampfschiffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft ("Association for Subordinate Officials of the Main Electric[ity] Maintenance Building of the Danube Steam Shipping"), but there is no evidence that this association ever actually existed.
The name of the company is well known in German-speaking countries as a starter to humorously construct even longer compound words.

Korean language

KoreanKorean-languageKorea
Alexander Vovin (2015) notes that Koreanic shares some typological features with the four Paleosiberian language families (e.g. lack of phonemic voiced stops, verb compounding, earlier ergativity), and suggests that it actually has more in common with the various Paleosiberian language family (which is a geographical and areal grouping rather a genetic one) than with the putative Altaic group.

Synthetic language

syntheticsyntheticallysynthesis
In a synthetic language, the relationship between the elements of a compound may be marked with a case or other morpheme.
* Mandarin lacks inflectional morphology almost entirely, and most words consist of either one- or two-syllable morphemes, especially two due to the very numerous compound words.

Morphological derivation

derivationderivationalderived
The addition of affix morphemes to words (such as suffixes or prefixes, as in employ → employment) should not be confused with nominal composition, as this is actually morphological derivation.
In that respect, derivation differs from compounding by which free morphemes are combined (lawsuit, Latin professor).

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
For example, the German compound Kapitänspatent consists of the lexemes Kapitän (sea captain) and Patent (license) joined by an -s- (originally a genitive case suffix); and similarly, the Latin lexeme paterfamilias contains the archaic genitive form familias of the lexeme familia (family).
Over the ages, Latin-speaking populations produced new adjectives, nouns, and verbs by affixing or compounding meaningful segments.

Classical compound

combining formscombining formneoclassical compound
Quite a few Russian words are borrowed from other languages in an already-compounded form, including numerous "classical compounds" or internationalisms: автомобиль 'automobile'.
Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.

Rinderkennzeichnungs- und Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz

Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz
The name is an example of the virtually unlimited compounding of nouns that is possible in many Germanic languages.

Turkish language

TurkishModern TurkishTr
In Turkish, one way of forming compound nouns is as follows: yeldeğirmeni 'windmill' (yel: wind, değirmen-i: mill-possessive); demiryolu 'railway' (demir: iron, yol-u: road-possessive).
New words are also frequently formed by compounding two existing words into a new one, as in German.

Word stem

stemstemsverb stem
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word or sign) that consists of more than one stem.
Stems may be a root, e.g. run, or they may be morphologically complex, as in compound words (e.g. the compound nouns meat ball or bottle opener) or words with derivational morphemes (e.g. the derived verbs black-en or standard-ize).

Dvandva

dualdvandva compound
Copulative compounds or dvandva, which are composed of two or more nouns from the same semantic category to denote that semantic category, also occur regularly in many sign languages.
A dvandva ('pair' in Sanskrit) is a linguistic compound in which multiple individual nouns are concatenated to form an agglomerated compound word in which the conjunction and has been elided to form a new word with a distinct semantic field.

English compound

compound nouncompoundEnglish compounds
A compound is a word composed of more than one free morpheme.

Persian language

PersianNew PersianFarsi
New words are extensively formed by compounding – two existing words combining into a new one, as is common in German.

Marathi language

MarathiMarathi-languageMarāthi
Marathi uses many morphological processes to join words together, forming compounds.

Kenning

kenningskenningarcompounds nouns
A kenning ( Modern Icelandic pronunciation: ) is a type of circumlocution, in the form of a compound that employs figurative language in place of a more concrete single-word noun.

Neologism

neologismscoinedneologistic
Neologisms are often created by combining existing words (see compound noun and adjective) or by giving words new and unique suffixes or prefixes.

Portmanteau

portmanteau wordportmanteausportmanteaux
A portmanteau also differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words.