Comprehensive school

comprehensivecomprehensive educationGesamtschulecomprehensive schoolscomprehensive systemcomprehensivescomprehensive secondary schoolstate comprehensiveComprehensive High SchoolSekundarschule
A comprehensive school is a school type, principally in the United Kingdom.wikipedia
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Selective school

selectiveselective educationnon-selective
It is a school for secondary aged children that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude, in contrast to the selective school system where admission is restricted on the basis of selection criteria.
The term may have different connotations in different systems and is the opposite of a comprehensive school, which accepts all students, regardless of aptitude.

State school

Publicpublic high schoolpublic school
The term is commonly used in relation to England and Wales, where comprehensive schools were introduced as state schools on an experimental basis in the 1940s and became more widespread from 1965. They correspond broadly to the public high school in the United States, Canada and Australia and to the Gesamtschule in Germany.

Hauptschule

Hauptsecondary schoolHaupt-
Starting in 2010/2011, Hauptschulen were merged with Realschulen and Gesamtschulen to form a new type of comprehensive school in the German States of Berlin and Hamburg, called Stadtteilschule in Hamburg and Sekundarschule in Berlin (see: Education in Berlin, Education in Hamburg).
Any student who attends a German elementary school can go to a Hauptschule or Gesamtschule, while students who want to attend a Realschule or Gymnasium need to have good marks in order to do so.

Education in Berlin

Starting in 2010/2011, Hauptschulen were merged with Realschulen and Gesamtschulen to form a new type of comprehensive school in the German States of Berlin and Hamburg, called Stadtteilschule in Hamburg and Sekundarschule in Berlin (see: Education in Berlin, Education in Hamburg).
Before 2011 completing primary school, students progressed to one of the four types of secondary schools for up to six further years: Hauptschule, Realschule, Gymnasium, or Gesamtschule.

Realschule

OberrealschulerealskoleRealschule plus
Starting in 2010/2011, Hauptschulen were merged with Realschulen and Gesamtschulen to form a new type of comprehensive school in the German States of Berlin and Hamburg, called Stadtteilschule in Hamburg and Sekundarschule in Berlin (see: Education in Berlin, Education in Hamburg). While some German schools such as the Gymnasium and the Realschule have rather strict entrance requirements, the Gesamtschule does not have such requirements.
In some states, Realschulen have recently been replaced by Oberschulen or Sekundarschulen.

Education in Hamburg

science, research, and education hubstate school in Hamburg
Starting in 2010/2011, Hauptschulen were merged with Realschulen and Gesamtschulen to form a new type of comprehensive school in the German States of Berlin and Hamburg, called Stadtteilschule in Hamburg and Sekundarschule in Berlin (see: Education in Berlin, Education in Hamburg).
The most common types were Hauptschulen, Realschulen, Gymnasien (prep schools) and Gesamtschulen (comprehensive schools).

Germany

GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
They correspond broadly to the public high school in the United States, Canada and Australia and to the Gesamtschule in Germany.
The Gesamtschule unifies all secondary education.

Ysgol Uwchradd Caergybi

Holyhead County Schoolfirst comprehensive school in WalesHolyhead High School
In 1946, for example, Walworth School was one of five 'experimental' comprehensive schools set up by the London County Council Another early comprehensive school was Holyhead County School in Anglesey in 1949.
Ysgol Uwchradd Caergybi was the first comprehensive school in England and Wales, opening in 1949 as Holyhead County School or Ysgol Uchwardd Caergybi.

Hauptschulabschluss

Berufsreifecompleted middle-school
In most cases students attending a Gesamtschule may graduate with the Hauptschulabschluss, the Realschulabschluss or the Abitur depending on how well they did in school.
It may also be awarded to students who leave the Realschule, Gymnasium or the Gesamtschule after having successfully completed 9th or 10th grade (depending on the State of Germany).

Patrick Hillery

Dr Patrick HilleryPresident HilleryHillery
Comprehensive schools were introduced into Ireland in 1966 by an initiative by Patrick Hillery, Minister for Education, to give a broader range of education compared to that of the vocational school system, which was then the only system of schools completely controlled by the state.
These included increased educational opportunities for many, the establishment of comprehensive schools and Regional Technical Colleges.

Academy (English school)

academy statusAcademyacademy school
With the Blair educational reforms from 2003, they may be part of a local education authority or be a self governing academy or part of a multi-academy trust.

Gymnasium (Germany)

GymnasiumRealgymnasiumGymnasiums
While some German schools such as the Gymnasium and the Realschule have rather strict entrance requirements, the Gesamtschule does not have such requirements.
Some Hauptschule and Gesamtschule students have special needs requiring extra help, so those schools cannot operate as cost-effectively as gymnasia.

Middle school

junior high schoolmiddlejunior high
Most comprehensives are secondary schools for children between the ages of 11 to 16, but in a few areas there are comprehensive middle schools, and in some places the secondary level is divided into two, for students aged 11 to 14 and those aged 14 to 18, roughly corresponding to the US middle school (or junior high school) and high school, respectively.
Some authorities introduced Middle Schools for ideological reasons, in line with the report, while others did so for more pragmatic reasons relating to the raising of the school leaving age in compulsory education to 16, or to introduce a comprehensive system.

Mittlere Reife

Realschulabschlusscompleted secondary schoolMiddle School
In most cases students attending a Gesamtschule may graduate with the Hauptschulabschluss, the Realschulabschluss or the Abitur depending on how well they did in school.
The Mittlere Reife can be awarded to students who attend a number of different schools, including the Hauptschule, the Realschule, the Werkrealschule, the Berufsfachschule, the Wirtschaftschule, and the Gesamtschule.

Grammar school

grammar schoolsGrammarGrammar schools in the United Kingdom
About 90% of British secondary school pupils now attend comprehensive schools (as opposed to independent schools or the small number of grammar schools). Students sat the 11+ examination in their last year of primary education and were sent to one of a secondary modern, secondary technical or grammar school depending on their perceived ability.
With the move to non-selective comprehensive schools in the 1960s and 1970s, some grammar schools became fully independent private schools and charged fees, while most others were abolished or became comprehensive (or sometimes merged with a secondary modern to form a new comprehensive school).

Eleven-plus

11-pluseleven plus exameleven-plus exam
By 1975 the majority of local authorities in England and Wales had abandoned the 11-Plus examination and moved to a comprehensive system.
The eleven-plus was once used throughout England and Wales, but is now only used in counties and boroughs in England that offer selective schools instead of comprehensive schools.

Secondary modern school

secondary modernhigh schoolsecondary modern schools
Students sat the 11+ examination in their last year of primary education and were sent to one of a secondary modern, secondary technical or grammar school depending on their perceived ability.
From 1965 onwards, secondary moderns were replaced in most of the UK by the comprehensive school system.

Circular 10/65

DES Circular 10/65government circular of 1965selection at eleven
The policy decision was implemented by Circular 10/65, an instruction to local education authorities to plan for conversion.
Circular 10/65 was a government circular issued in 1965 by the Department of Education and Science (DES) requesting Local Education Authorities (LEAs) in England and Wales to begin converting their secondary schools to the Comprehensive System.

Margaret Thatcher

ThatcherBaroness ThatcherThatcherite
In 1970 Margaret Thatcher, the Secretary of State for Education in the new Conservative government, ended the compulsion on local authorities to convert, however, many local authorities were so far down the path that it would have been prohibitively expensive to attempt to reverse the process, and more comprehensive schools were established under Thatcher than any other education secretary.
The department evaluated proposals for more local education authorities to close grammar schools and to adopt comprehensive secondary education.

Labour Party (UK)

Labour PartyLabourBritish Labour Party
The largest expansion of comprehensive schools resulted from a policy decision taken in 1965 by Anthony Crosland, Secretary of State for Education in the 1964–1970 Labour government.
Wilson's government also put heavy emphasis on expanding opportunities through education, and as such, comprehensive education was expanded and the Open University created.

Specialist schools programme

specialist schoolspecialistspecialist status
In addition, government initiatives such as the City Technology Colleges and Specialist schools programmes have made the comprehensive ideal less certain.
As specialism implied diversity of schools, it was opposed by many supporters of comprehensive schools, including many in the Labour Party.

Home education in the United Kingdom

home educationhome educateeducated at home
Since the 1988 Education Reform Act, parents have a right to choose which school their child should go to or whether to not send them to school at all and to home educate them instead.
The Hadow reports (1923–1933) with their suggestions such that "a good school 'is not a place of compulsory instruction, but a community of old and young, engaged in learning by cooperative experiment'. laid the foundations for the 1944 Education act which required that each child be educated according to their individual aptitude and ability either at school or otherwise. The plans for a liberal communal based education system incorporating schools, village halls and community centres floundered against local bureaucracy and finance and offered little more than a tripartite school system which itself would be abandoned as ineffectual in favour of comprehensive schools later to be dismissed as "bog standard"

Metropolitan Borough of Dudley

DudleyDudley Metropolitan BoroughDudley Council
Some local authorities, including Sandwell and Dudley in the West Midlands, changed all of its state secondary schools to comprehensive schools during the 1970s.
There are no grammar schools in the borough, with all state schools being comprehensive, a system which has been universal in the borough since the mid-1970s.

Secondary school

high schoolsecondaryhigh schools
It is a school for secondary aged children that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude, in contrast to the selective school system where admission is restricted on the basis of selection criteria. Most comprehensives are secondary schools for children between the ages of 11 to 16, but in a few areas there are comprehensive middle schools, and in some places the secondary level is divided into two, for students aged 11 to 14 and those aged 14 to 18, roughly corresponding to the US middle school (or junior high school) and high school, respectively.