Computer

computerscomputer systemdigital computercomputer systemselectronic computercomputingdigital computersdigital computingelectronic computerscomputer studies
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.wikipedia
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Computer hardware

hardwarepersonal computer hardwaredevice
A "complete" computer including the hardware, the operating system (main software), and peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system. This term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster.
Computer hardware includes the physical, tangible parts or components of a computer, such as the cabinet, central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card, speakers and motherboard.

Computer program

programprogramscomputer programs
Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks.
A computer program is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer.

Computer cluster

clusterclusteringclusters
A "complete" computer including the hardware, the operating system (main software), and peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system. This term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster.
A computer cluster is a set of loosely or tightly connected computers that work together so that, in many respects, they can be viewed as a single system.

Programmable logic controller

PLCPLCsprogrammable logic controllers
Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices.
A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is an industrial digital computer which has been ruggedized and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability control and ease of programming and process fault diagnosis.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

Computer-aided design

CADcomputer aided designcomputer-aided design (CAD)
This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones.
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computers (or workstations) to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.

Peripheral

peripheralsperipheral devicecomputer peripheral
A "complete" computer including the hardware, the operating system (main software), and peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system. This term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster.
A peripheral or peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer".

Central processing unit

CPUprocessorprocessors
Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logic, controlling, and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

Human computer

computercomputershuman computers
This usage of the term referred to a human computer, a person who carried out calculations or computations.
The term "computer", in use from the early 17th century (the first known written reference dates from 1613), meant "one who computes": a person performing mathematical calculations, before electronic computers became commercially available.

Turing machine

deterministic Turing machineuniversal computeruniversal computation
The Online Etymology Dictionary indicates that the "modern use" of the term, to mean "programmable digital electronic computer" dates from "... 1945 under this name; [in a] theoretical [sense] from 1937, as Turing machine".
While they can express arbitrary computations, their minimalistic design makes them unsuitable for computation in practice: real-world computers are based on different designs that, unlike Turing machines, use random-access memory.

Abacus

abaciabacusescounting frame
Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations.
Although today many use calculators and computers instead of abacuses to calculate, abacuses still remain in common use in some countries.

Computer programming

programmingcodingcomputer programmer
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. In 1941, Zuse followed his earlier machine up with the Z3, the world's first working electromechanical programmable, fully automatic digital computer.
Later a control panel (plugboard) added to his 1906 Type I Tabulator allowed it to be programmed for different jobs, and by the late 1940s, unit record equipment such as the IBM 602 and IBM 604, were programmed by control panels in a similar way; as were the first electronic computers.

Charles Babbage

BabbageBabbage, CharlesBabbage engines
Charles Babbage, an English mechanical engineer and polymath, originated the concept of a programmable computer.
A mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer, Babbage originated the concept of a digital programmable computer.

Computing

computer technologycomputercomputational
During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation.
Computing is any activity that uses computers.

Analog computer

analogue computeranaloganalog computers
During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation.
An analog computer or analogue computer is a type of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.

Computer memory

memorymemoriesmain memory
Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory.
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".

Punched card

punched cardspunch cardpunch cards
The input of programs and data was to be provided to the machine via punched cards, a method being used at the time to direct mechanical looms such as the Jacquard loom.
Many early digital computers used punched cards, often prepared using keypunch machines, as the primary medium for input of both computer programs and data.

John Vincent Atanasoff

John V. AtanasoffJohn Atanasoff Atanasoff, John
In the US, John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford E. Berry of Iowa State University developed and tested the Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) in 1942, the first "automatic electronic digital computer".
John Vincent Atanasoff (October 4, 1903 – June 15, 1995) was an American physicist and inventor, best known for being credited with inventing the first electronic digital computer.

Z2 (computer)

Z2
The Z2, created by German engineer Konrad Zuse in 1939, was one of the earliest examples of an electromechanical relay computer.
The Z2 was a mechanical and relay computer completed by Konrad Zuse in 1940.

Vacuum tube

vacuum tubestubethermionic valve
These devices had a low operating speed and were eventually superseded by much faster all-electric computers, originally using vacuum tubes.
They were crucial to the development of radio, television, radar, sound recording and reproduction, long distance telephone networks, and analogue and early digital computers.

Mechanical computer

electromechanical computermechanicalearly computers
Considered the "father of the computer", he conceptualized and invented the first mechanical computer in the early 19th century.
Mechanical computers can be either analog, using smooth mechanisms such as curved plates or slide rules for computations; or digital, which use gears.

Colossus computer

ColossusColossus machinesColossus codebreaking computer
To crack the more sophisticated German Lorenz SZ 40/42 machine, used for high-level Army communications, Max Newman and his colleagues commissioned Flowers to build the Colossus.
Colossus was a set of computers developed by British codebreakers in the years 1943–1945 to help in the cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher.

Z3 (computer)

Z3Z3 computerZuse Z3
In 1941, Zuse followed his earlier machine up with the Z3, the world's first working electromechanical programmable, fully automatic digital computer.
It was the world's first working programmable, fully automatic digital computer.

ENIAC

Electronic computerElectronic Numerical Integrator And ComputerENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)
The U.S.-built ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was the first electronic programmable computer built in the US. Although the ENIAC was similar to the Colossus, it was much faster, more flexible, and it was Turing-complete.
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was amongst the earliest electronic general-purpose computers made.

Bit

binary digitbitsbinary digits
The Z3 was built with 2000 relays, implementing a 22 bit word length that operated at a clock frequency of about 5–10 Hz.
The correspondence between these values and the physical states of the underlying storage or device is a matter of convention, and different assignments may be used even within the same device or program.