The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
A human computer, with microscope and calculator, 1952
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
The Ishango bone, a bone tool dating back to prehistoric Africa.
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
The Chinese suanpan (算盘). The number represented on this abacus is 6,302,715,408.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
The Antikythera mechanism, dating back to ancient Greece circa 150–100 BC, is an early analog computing device.
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
A slide rule.
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
A portion of Babbage's Difference engine.
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Sir William Thomson's third tide-predicting machine design, 1879–81
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
Replica of Konrad Zuse's Z3, the first fully automatic, digital (electromechanical) computer.
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
Colossus, the first electronic digital programmable computing device, was used to break German ciphers during World War II. It is seen here in use at Bletchley Park in 1943.
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
ENIAC was the first electronic, Turing-complete device, and performed ballistics trajectory calculations for the United States Army.
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
A section of the Manchester Baby, the first electronic stored-program computer
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Bipolar junction transistor (BJT)
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
MOSFET (MOS transistor), showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (pink).
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Diagram showing how a particular MIPS architecture instruction would be decoded by the control system
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Magnetic-core memory (using magnetic cores) was the computer memory of choice in the 1960s, until it was replaced by semiconductor memory (using MOS memory cells).
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Hard disk drives are common storage devices used with computers.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Cray designed many supercomputers that used multiprocessing heavily.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Replica of the Manchester Baby, the world's first electronic stored-program computer, at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, England
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
A 1970s punched card containing one line from a Fortran program. The card reads: "Z(1) = Y + W(1)" and is labeled "PROJ039" for identification purposes.
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>
The actual first computer bug, a moth found trapped on a relay of the Harvard Mark II computer
Visualization of a portion of the routes on the Internet

The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, and generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional, personal, and mobile computers were connected to the network.

- Internet

Computers power the Internet, which links billions of other computers and users.

- Computer
The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

5 related topics

Alpha

IBM Simon and charging base (1994)

Smartphone

Portable device that combines mobile telephone and computing functions into one unit.

Portable device that combines mobile telephone and computing functions into one unit.

IBM Simon and charging base (1994)
The Nokia 9110 Communicator, opened for access to keyboard
Several BlackBerry smartphones, which were highly popular in the mid-late 2000s
The LG Prada with a large capacitive touchscreen introduced in 2006
The original Apple iPhone; following its introduction the common smartphone form factor shifted to large touchscreen software interfaces without physical keypads
A Meizu MX4 with Flyme OS
The Nokia 9 PureView features a five-lens camera array with Zeiss optics, using a mixture of color and monochrome sensors.
The Huawei P30 features three rear-facing camera lenses with Leica optics.
A Moto G7 Power; its display uses a tall aspect ratio and includes a "notch".
A Samsung Galaxy S20 Plus, featuring a "hole-punch" camera
Mobile/desktop convergence: the Librem 5 smartphone can be used as a basic desktop computer
Smartphone with infrared transmitter on top for use as remote control
"Device options" menu of Samsung Mobile's TouchWiz user interface as of 2013, accessed by holding the power button for a second
The HTC Desire, a 2010 smartphone with optical trackpad and search button.
A smartphone touchscreen
Tooltip in Kiwi Browser, a Google Chromium derirative, reveals the full URL by hovering over the tab list using the stylus on a Samsung Galaxy Note 4.
Optical track pad sensor of an HTC Legend, 2010.
Inserted memory and SIM cards
A high-capacity portable battery charger (power bank).
Several smartphones running Google's Android OS
A Palm Treo 300 smartphone (2002)
A Nokia N70 smartphone (2005) running Symbian OS, which was highly popular in Europe and Asia in the 2000s
Mobile payment system.
A New York City driver holding two phones
A user consulting a mapping app on a phone
A sign along Bellaire Boulevard in Southside Place, Texas (Greater Houston) states that using mobile phones while driving is prohibited from 7:30 am to 9:00 am and from 2:00 pm to 4:15 pm
E-waste in Agbogbloshie

They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wider software, internet (including web browsing over mobile broadband), and multimedia functionality (including music, video, cameras, and gaming), alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging.

Mobile phones can also be used as a digital note taking, text editing and memorandum device whose computerization facilitates searching of entries.

MOSFET, showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (pink).

MOSFET

Type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor that is fabricated by the controlled oxidation of a semiconductor, typically silicon.

Type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor that is fabricated by the controlled oxidation of a semiconductor, typically silicon.

MOSFET, showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (pink).
MOSFET transistors in various types of packaging
A cross-section through an nMOSFET when the gate voltage VGS is below the threshold for making a conductive channel; there is little or no conduction between the drain and source terminals; the switch is off. When the gate is more positive, it attracts electrons, inducing an n-type conductive channel in the substrate below the oxide, which allows electrons to flow between the n-doped terminals; the switch is on.
Simulation of formation of inversion channel (electron density) and attainment of threshold vol&shy;tage (IV) in a nanowire MOSFET. Note: threshold voltage for this device lies around 0.45 V
Photomicrograph of two metal-gate MOSFETs in a test pattern. Probe pads for two gates and three source/drain nodes are labeled.
Metal–oxide–semiconductor structure on p-type silicon
Channel formation in nMOS MOSFET shown as band diagram: Top panels: An applied gate voltage bends bands, depleting holes from surface (left). The charge inducing the bending is balanced by a layer of negative acceptor-ion charge (right). Bottom panel: A larger applied voltage further depletes holes but conduction band lowers enough in energy to populate a conducting channel
C–V profile for a bulk MOSFET with different oxide thickness. The leftmost part of the curve corresponds to accumulation. The valley in the middle corresponds to depletion. The curve on the right corresponds to inversion
Source tied to the body to ensure no body bias: subthreshold (top left), ohmic mode (top right), active mode at onset of pinch-off (bottom left), and active mode well into pinch-off (bottom right). Channel length modulation is evident.
Example application of an n-channel MOSFET. When the switch is pushed, the LED lights up.
Band diagram showing body effect. VSB splits Fermi levels Fn for electrons and Fp for holes, requiring larger VGB to populate the conduction band in an nMOS MOSFET
Two power MOSFETs in D2PAK surface-mount packages. Operating as switches, each of these components can sustain a blocking voltage of 120V in the off state, and can conduct a con&shy;ti&shy;nuous current of 30 A in the on state, dissipating up to about 100 W and controlling a load of over 2000 W. A matchstick is pictured for scale.
Cross section of a power MOSFET, with square cells. A typical transistor is constituted of several thousand cells
A FinFET (fin field-effect transistor), a type of multi-gate MOSFET.
MOSFET showing shallow junction extensions, raised source and drain and halo implant. Raised source and drain separated from gate by oxide spacers
Trend of Intel CPU transistor gate length
MOSFET version of gain-boosted current mirror; M1 and M2 are in active mode, while M3 and M4 are in Ohmic mode, and act like resistors. The operational amplifier provides feedback that maintains a high output resistance.

The MOSFET revolutionized the world during the information age, with its high density enabling a computer to exist on a few small IC chips rather than filling a room, and later making possible digital communications technology such as smartphones.

MOSFETs are fundamental to information and communications technology (ICT), including modern computers, modern computing, telecommunications, the communications infrastructure, the Internet, digital telephony, wireless telecommunications, and mobile networks.

An iPhone smartphone and iPad tablet—two examples of mobile devices.

Mobile device

An iPhone smartphone and iPad tablet—two examples of mobile devices.
Smartphones, handheld mobile devices
Smartwatches, handheld mobile devices

A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer small enough to hold and operate in the hand.

Some mobile devices can be used as mobile Internet devices to access the Internet while moving, but they do not need to do this and many phone functions or applications are still operational even while disconnected from the Internet.

A computer network diagram of client computers communicating with a server computer via the Internet

Server (computing)

A computer network diagram of client computers communicating with a server computer via the Internet
Wikimedia Foundation rackmount servers in racks on a data center
First WWW server located at CERN with its original sticker that says: "This machine is a server. DO NOT POWER IT DOWN!!"
A network based on the client–server model where multiple individual clients request services and resources from centralized servers
A rack-mountable server with the top cover removed to reveal internal components
Sun's Cobalt Qube 3; a computer server appliance (2002); running Cobalt Linux (a customized version of Red Hat Linux, using the 2.2 Linux kernel), complete with the Apache web server.

In computing, a server is a piece of computer hardware or software (computer program) that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".

In computing, "server" dates at least to RFC 5 (1969), one of the earliest documents describing ARPANET (the predecessor of Internet), and is contrasted with "user", distinguishing two types of host: "server-host" and "user-host".

Network Packet

Computer network

Network Packet
Common network topologies
A sample overlay network
Network links
Fiber optic cables are used to transmit light from one computer/network node to another
2007 map showing submarine optical fiber telecommunication cables around the world.
Computers are very often connected to networks using wireless links
An ATM network interface in the form of an accessory card. A lot of network interfaces are built-in.
A typical home or small office router showing the ADSL telephone line and Ethernet network cable connections
Firewalls
The TCP/IP model and its relation to common protocols used at different layers of the model.
Message flows between two devices (A-B) at the four layers of the TCP/IP model in the presence of a router (R). Red flows are effective communication paths, black paths are across the actual network links.
SONET & SDH
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Routing calculates good paths through a network for information to take. For example, from node 1 to node 6 the best routes are likely to be 1-8-7-6, 1-8-10-6 or 1-9-10-6, as these are the shortest routes.
Partial map of the Internet, based on the January 15, 2005 data found on opte.org . Each line is drawn between two nodes, representing two IP addresses. The length of the lines is indicative of the delay between those two nodes. This graph represents less than 30% of the Class C networks reachable.

A computer network is a set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes.

In 1974, Vint Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine published the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) specification,, coining the term Internet as a shorthand for internetworking.