Computer graphics

graphicsCGCG artworkcomputer-generatedCGsCGIgraphiccomputer generatedgraphicalComputer painting
Computer graphics is the discipline of generating images with the aid of computers.wikipedia
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Computer-generated imagery

CGIcomputer-generatedCGI animation
It is often abbreviated as CG, or typically in the context of film as CGI.
Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, films, television programs, shorts, commercials, videos, and simulators.

Ray tracing (graphics)

ray tracingraytracingray-tracing
Some topics in computer graphics include user interface design, sprite graphics, rendering, ray tracing, geometry processing, computer animation, vector graphics, 3D modeling, shaders, GPU design, implicit surface visualization, image processing, computational photography, scientific visualization, computational geometry and computer vision, among others. Also in 1968 Arthur Appel described the first ray casting algorithm, the first of a class of ray tracing-based rendering algorithms that have since become fundamental in achieving photorealism in graphics by modeling the paths that rays of light take from a light source, to surfaces in a scene, and into the camera.
In computer graphics, ray tracing is a rendering technique for generating an image by tracing the path of light as pixels in an image plane and simulating the effects of its encounters with virtual objects.

Vector graphics

vectorvector graphicvector image
Some topics in computer graphics include user interface design, sprite graphics, rendering, ray tracing, geometry processing, computer animation, vector graphics, 3D modeling, shaders, GPU design, implicit surface visualization, image processing, computational photography, scientific visualization, computational geometry and computer vision, among others.
Vector graphics are computer graphics images that are defined in terms of 2D points, which are connected by lines and curves to form polygons and other shapes.

Shader

pixel shadervertex shadershaders
Some topics in computer graphics include user interface design, sprite graphics, rendering, ray tracing, geometry processing, computer animation, vector graphics, 3D modeling, shaders, GPU design, implicit surface visualization, image processing, computational photography, scientific visualization, computational geometry and computer vision, among others.
In computer graphics, a shader is a type of computer program that was originally used for shading (the production of appropriate levels of light, darkness, and color within an image), but which now performs a variety of specialized functions in various fields of computer graphics special effects, or does video post-processing unrelated to shading, or even performs functions unrelated to graphics at all.

Scientific visualization

visualizationscientific visualisationvisualize
Some topics in computer graphics include user interface design, sprite graphics, rendering, ray tracing, geometry processing, computer animation, vector graphics, 3D modeling, shaders, GPU design, implicit surface visualization, image processing, computational photography, scientific visualization, computational geometry and computer vision, among others. Over the past decade, other specialized fields have been developed like information visualization, and scientific visualization more concerned with "the visualization of three dimensional phenomena (architectural, meteorological, medical, biological, etc.), where the emphasis is on realistic renderings of volumes, surfaces, illumination sources, and so forth, perhaps with a dynamic (time) component".
It is also considered a subset of computer graphics, a branch of computer science.

Computational geometry

computational geometergeometric algorithmssearch space
Some topics in computer graphics include user interface design, sprite graphics, rendering, ray tracing, geometry processing, computer animation, vector graphics, 3D modeling, shaders, GPU design, implicit surface visualization, image processing, computational photography, scientific visualization, computational geometry and computer vision, among others.
The main impetus for the development of computational geometry as a discipline was progress in computer graphics and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM), but many problems in computational geometry are classical in nature, and may come from mathematical visualization.

Computational photography

Computational Imaging
Some topics in computer graphics include user interface design, sprite graphics, rendering, ray tracing, geometry processing, computer animation, vector graphics, 3D modeling, shaders, GPU design, implicit surface visualization, image processing, computational photography, scientific visualization, computational geometry and computer vision, among others.
subject areas in computer graphics, computer vision, and applied

Biological data visualization

visualizationbiological
Over the past decade, other specialized fields have been developed like information visualization, and scientific visualization more concerned with "the visualization of three dimensional phenomena (architectural, meteorological, medical, biological, etc.), where the emphasis is on realistic renderings of volumes, surfaces, illumination sources, and so forth, perhaps with a dynamic (time) component".
Biology data visualization is a branch of bioinformatics concerned with the application of computer graphics, scientific visualization, and information visualization to different areas of the life sciences.

Ivan Sutherland

Ivan E. SutherlandIvan Edward SutherlandSutherland
A light pen could be used to draw sketches on the computer using Ivan Sutherland's revolutionary Sketchpad software.
His early work in computer graphics as well as his teaching with David C. Evans in that subject at the University of Utah in the 1970s was pioneering in the field.

Geometry processing

mesh processingDigital geometry processingprocessing
Some topics in computer graphics include user interface design, sprite graphics, rendering, ray tracing, geometry processing, computer animation, vector graphics, 3D modeling, shaders, GPU design, implicit surface visualization, image processing, computational photography, scientific visualization, computational geometry and computer vision, among others.
Geometry processing is a common research topic at SIGGRAPH, the premier computer graphics academic conference, and the main topic of the annual Symposium on Geometry Processing.

William Fetter

The phrase "computer graphics" itself was coined in 1960 by William Fetter, a graphic designer for Boeing.
William Fetter, also known as William Alan Fetter or Bill Fetter (March 14, 1928 – June 23, 2002), was an American graphic designer and pioneer in the field of computer graphics.

Bézier curve

BézierBezier curveBezier curves
Also sometime in the early 1960s, automobiles would also provide a boost through the early work of Pierre Bézier at Renault, who used Paul de Casteljau's curves – now called Bézier curves after Bézier's work in the field – to develop 3d modeling techniques for Renault car bodies.
A Bézier curve is a parametric curve used in computer graphics and related fields.

Renault

Groupe RenaultRenault GroupRenault Megane
Also sometime in the early 1960s, automobiles would also provide a boost through the early work of Pierre Bézier at Renault, who used Paul de Casteljau's curves – now called Bézier curves after Bézier's work in the field – to develop 3d modeling techniques for Renault car bodies.
Its early work on mathematical curve modeling for car bodies is important in the history of computer graphics.

Information visualization

visualizationinformation visualisationgraphical representation
Over the past decade, other specialized fields have been developed like information visualization, and scientific visualization more concerned with "the visualization of three dimensional phenomena (architectural, meteorological, medical, biological, etc.), where the emphasis is on realistic renderings of volumes, surfaces, illumination sources, and so forth, perhaps with a dynamic (time) component".
The modern study of visualization started with computer graphics, which "has from its beginning been used to study scientific problems. However, in its early days the lack of graphics power often limited its usefulness. The recent emphasis on visualization started in 1987 with the special issue of Computer Graphics on Visualization in Scientific Computing. Since then there have been several conferences and workshops, co-sponsored by the IEEE Computer Society and ACM SIGGRAPH".

Sketchpad

Display windowingSketchpad software
A light pen could be used to draw sketches on the computer using Ivan Sutherland's revolutionary Sketchpad software.
Sketchpad is considered to be the ancestor of modern computer-aided design (CAD) programs as well as a major breakthrough in the development of computer graphics in general.

Evans & Sutherland

Evans and SutherlandDigistar 3E&S
In 1968, Dave Evans and Ivan Sutherland founded the first computer graphics hardware company, Evans & Sutherland.
Evans & Sutherland is a pioneering American computer firm in the computer graphics field.

Human–computer interaction

human-computer interactionhuman computer interactionHCI
Further advances in computing led to greater advancements in interactive computer graphics.
"Because human–computer interaction studies a human and a machine in communication, it draws from supporting knowledge on both the machine and the human side. On the machine side, techniques in computer graphics, operating systems, programming languages, and development environments are relevant. On the human side, communication theory, graphic and industrial design disciplines, linguistics, social sciences, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and human factors such as computer user satisfaction are relevant. And, of course, engineering and design methods are relevant."

Ray casting

raycastingray-castingbrute force raycasting
Also in 1968 Arthur Appel described the first ray casting algorithm, the first of a class of ray tracing-based rendering algorithms that have since become fundamental in achieving photorealism in graphics by modeling the paths that rays of light take from a light source, to surfaces in a scene, and into the camera.
Ray casting is the use of ray–surface intersection tests to solve a variety of problems in 3D computer graphics and computational geometry.

2D computer graphics

2Dtwo-dimensional2D graphics
As technology has improved, 3D computer graphics have become more common, but 2D computer graphics are still widely used.
Rotation matrices provide a simple algebraic description of such rotations, and are used extensively for computations in geometry, physics, and computer graphics.

SIGGRAPH

International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive TechniquesACM SIGGRAPHSIGGRAPH 2007
In 1969, the ACM initiated A Special Interest Group on Graphics (SIGGRAPH) which organizes conferences, graphics standards, and publications within the field of computer graphics.
SIGGRAPH (Special Interest Group on Computer GRAPHics and Interactive Techniques) is an annual conference on computer graphics (CG) organized by the ACM SIGGRAPH, starting in 1974.

Pierre Bézier

Also sometime in the early 1960s, automobiles would also provide a boost through the early work of Pierre Bézier at Renault, who used Paul de Casteljau's curves – now called Bézier curves after Bézier's work in the field – to develop 3d modeling techniques for Renault car bodies.
Bézier patented and popularized the Bézier curves and Bézier surfaces that are now used in most computer-aided design and computer graphics systems.

Virtual reality

virtualVRvirtual-reality
There Sutherland perfected his HMD; twenty years later, NASA would re-discover his techniques in their virtual reality research.
Image-based virtual reality systems have been gaining popularity in computer graphics and computer vision communities.

Silicon Graphics

SGISilicon Graphics, Inc.Silicon Graphics Inc.
He was paired with David C. Evans to teach an advanced computer graphics class, which contributed a great deal of founding research to the field and taught several students who would grow to found several of the industry's most important companies – namely Pixar, Silicon Graphics, and Adobe Systems.
Early systems were based on the Geometry Engine that Clark and Marc Hannah had developed at Stanford University, and were derived from Clark's broader background in computer graphics.

Computer vision

visionimage classificationImage recognition
Some topics in computer graphics include user interface design, sprite graphics, rendering, ray tracing, geometry processing, computer animation, vector graphics, 3D modeling, shaders, GPU design, implicit surface visualization, image processing, computational photography, scientific visualization, computational geometry and computer vision, among others.
Computer graphics produces image data from 3D models, computer vision often produces 3D models from image data.

Sprite (computer graphics)

spritesspritesprite-based
Some topics in computer graphics include user interface design, sprite graphics, rendering, ray tracing, geometry processing, computer animation, vector graphics, 3D modeling, shaders, GPU design, implicit surface visualization, image processing, computational photography, scientific visualization, computational geometry and computer vision, among others.
Sprite is a computer graphics term for a two-dimensional bitmap that is integrated into a larger scene, most often in a 2D video game.