Computer memory

memorymemoriesmain memorycomputer's memorymemory capacitysystem memorycomputer memoriesData memorymemory chipsmemory components
In computing, memory refers to a device that is used to store information for immediate use in a computer or related computer hardware device.wikipedia
635 Related Articles

Memory cell (computing)

memory cellsmemory cellcell
It typically refers to semiconductor memory, specifically metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) memory, where data is stored within MOS memory cells on a silicon integrated circuit chip. Toshiba introduced bipolar DRAM memory cells for its Toscal BC-1411 electronic calculator in 1965.
The memory cell is the fundamental building block of computer memory.

Random-access memory

RAMmemoryrandom access memory
Computer memory operates at a high speed, for example random-access memory (RAM), as a distinction from storage that provides slow-to-access information but offers higher capacities.
Random-access memory (RAM ) is a form of computer memory that can be read and changed in any order, typically used to store working data and machine code.

Virtual memory

virtual storagememoryswap
If needed, contents of the computer memory can be transferred to secondary storage; a very common way of doing this is through a memory management technique called "virtual memory".
The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.

Non-volatile memory

non-volatilenon-volatile storagenon-volatile memories
There are two main kinds of semiconductor memory, volatile and non-volatile. Examples of non-volatile memory are flash memory (used as secondary memory) and ROM, PROM, EPROM and EEPROM memory (used for storing firmware such as BIOS).
Non-volatile memory (NVM) or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory that can retrieve stored information even after having been power cycled.

Computer hardware

hardwarepersonal computer hardwaredevice
In computing, memory refers to a device that is used to store information for immediate use in a computer or related computer hardware device.
This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers, a control unit containing an instruction register and program counter, a memory to store both data and instructions, external mass storage, and input and output mechanisms.

Integrated circuit

integrated circuitsmicrochipchip
It typically refers to semiconductor memory, specifically metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) memory, where data is stored within MOS memory cells on a silicon integrated circuit chip.
The cost per transistor and the switching power consumption per transistor goes down, while the memory capacity and speed go up, through the relationships defined by Dennard scaling (MOSFET scaling).

Volatile memory

volatilememoryvolatile program memory
There are two main kinds of semiconductor memory, volatile and non-volatile. Examples of volatile memory are primary storage, which is typically dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), and fast CPU cache memory, which is typically static random-access memory (SRAM) that is fast but energy-consuming, offering lower memory areal density than DRAM.
Volatile memory, in contrast to non-volatile memory, is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information; it retains its contents while powered on but when the power is interrupted, the stored data is quickly lost.

Word (computer architecture)

wordwordsword size
The memory cells are grouped into words of fixed word length, for example 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 or 128 bit.
The size of a word is reflected in many aspects of a computer's structure and operation; the majority of the registers in a processor are usually word sized and the largest piece of data that can be transferred to and from the working memory in a single operation is a word in many (not all) architectures.

Delay line memory

acoustic delay linedelay linesdelay line
The next significant advance in computer memory came with acoustic delay line memory, developed by J. Presper Eckert in the early 1940s.
Delay line memory is a form of computer memory, now obsolete, that was used on some of the earliest digital computers.

Computer

computerscomputer systemdigital computer
In computing, memory refers to a device that is used to store information for immediate use in a computer or related computer hardware device.
Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) in the form of a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) microprocessor, along with some type of computer memory, typically MOS semiconductor memory chips.

Selectron tube

SelectronCathode ray charge storage tubeelectrostatic memory tube
Two alternatives to the delay line, the Williams tube and Selectron tube, originated in 1946, both using electron beams in glass tubes as means of storage.
The Selectron was an early form of digital computer memory developed by Jan A. Rajchman and his group at the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) under the direction of Vladimir K. Zworykin.

Magnetic-core memory

core memorymagnetic core memoryferrite core memory
Magnetic-core memory allowed for recall of memory after power loss.
Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.

Williams tube

Williams–Kilburn tubeWilliams tubesWilliams-Kilburn tube
Two alternatives to the delay line, the Williams tube and Selectron tube, originated in 1946, both using electron beams in glass tubes as means of storage.
The Williams tube, or the Williams–Kilburn tube after inventors Freddie Williams and Tom Kilburn, is an early form of computer memory.

Semiconductor memory

memory chipMOS memorydigital memory
It typically refers to semiconductor memory, specifically metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) memory, where data is stored within MOS memory cells on a silicon integrated circuit chip.
Semiconductor memory is a digital electronic semiconductor device used for digital data storage, such as computer memory.

Calculator

pocket calculatorcalculatorselectronic calculator
Toshiba introduced bipolar DRAM memory cells for its Toscal BC-1411 electronic calculator in 1965.
Calculators also have the ability to store numbers into computer memory.

MOSFET

metal-oxide-semiconductorMOSMOS integrated circuit
It typically refers to semiconductor memory, specifically metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) memory, where data is stored within MOS memory cells on a silicon integrated circuit chip.
Digital integrated circuits such as microprocessors and memory devices contain thousands to billions of integrated MOSFET transistors on each device, providing the basic switching functions required to implement logic gates and data storage.

Flash memory

flashNANDFlash ROM
Examples of non-volatile memory are flash memory (used as secondary memory) and ROM, PROM, EPROM and EEPROM memory (used for storing firmware such as BIOS).
Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer memory storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.

Programmable metallization cell

CBRAMPMCconductive-bridging RAM
Forthcoming non-volatile memory technologies include FERAM, CBRAM, PRAM, STT-RAM, SONOS, RRAM, racetrack memory, NRAM, 3D XPoint, and millipede memory.
The programmable metallization cell, or PMC, is a non-volatile computer memory developed at Arizona State University.

Dynamic random-access memory

DRAMvideo memorydynamic RAM
Examples of volatile memory are primary storage, which is typically dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), and fast CPU cache memory, which is typically static random-access memory (SRAM) that is fast but energy-consuming, offering lower memory areal density than DRAM.
DRAM chips are widely used in digital electronics where low-cost and high-capacity computer memory is required.

Floating-gate MOSFET

floating-gatefloating gatefloating-gate transistor
In 1967, Dawon Kahng and Simon Sze of Bell Labs proposed that the floating gate of a MOS semiconductor device could be used for the cell of a reprogrammable read-only memory (ROM), which led to Dov Frohman of Intel inventing EPROM (erasable PROM) in 1971.
The FGMOS is commonly used as a floating-gate memory cell, the digital storage element in EPROM, EEPROM and flash memory technologies.

Segmentation fault

access violationSIGSEGVsegmentation violation
A segmentation fault occurs when a program attempts to access a memory location that it is not allowed to access, or attempts to access a memory location in a way that is not allowed (for example, attempting to write to a read-only location, or to overwrite part of the operating system).

SONOS

NROMoxide-nitride-oxide (ONO)
Forthcoming non-volatile memory technologies include FERAM, CBRAM, PRAM, STT-RAM, SONOS, RRAM, racetrack memory, NRAM, 3D XPoint, and millipede memory.
It had a device structure and operating principles similar to floating-gate (FG) memory, but the main difference is that the charges are stored in a conducting material (typically a doped polysilicon layer) in FG memory, whereas CT memory stored charges in localized traps within a dielectric layer (typically made of silicon nitride).

Computing

computer technologycomputing technologyapplied computing
In computing, memory refers to a device that is used to store information for immediate use in a computer or related computer hardware device.

Silicon

Sisilicon revolutionsilicium
It typically refers to semiconductor memory, specifically metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) memory, where data is stored within MOS memory cells on a silicon integrated circuit chip.