Computer network

networknetworkingcomputer networkingnetworkscomputer networksnetworkedNetwork Engineeringcomputerinformation networknetworked computers
A computer network is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.wikipedia
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Wireless network

wireless networkingwirelesswireless networks
These data links are established over cable media such as wires or optic cables, or wireless media such as WiFi.
A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes.

Networking hardware

network equipmentnetwork hardwarenetworking equipment
Nodes are identified by network addresses, and can include hosts such as personal computers, phones, and servers, as well as networking hardware such as routers and switches.
Networking hardware, also known as network equipment or computer networking devices, are physical devices which are required for communication and interaction between devices on a computer network.

Routing

network routingroutedroute
Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes.
Broadly, routing is performed in many types of networks, including circuit-switched networks, such as the public switched telephone network (PSTN), and computer networks, such as the Internet.

Host (network)

hosthostshost computer
Nodes are identified by network addresses, and can include hosts such as personal computers, phones, and servers, as well as networking hardware such as routers and switches. In 1973, the French CYCLADES network was the first to make the hosts responsible for the reliable delivery of data, rather than this being a centralized service of the network itself.
A network host is a computer or other device connected to a computer network.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
The best-known computer network is the Internet. In 1969, the first four nodes of the ARPANET were connected using 50 kbit/s circuits between the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah. Leonard Kleinrock carried out theoretical work to model the performance of packet-switched networks, which underpinned the development of the ARPANET. His theoretical work on hierarchical routing in the late 1970s with student Farouk Kamoun remains critical to the operation of the Internet today.
The Internet (contraction of interconnected network) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

Network management

network administrationmanagementnetwork
This formidable collection of information technology requires skilled network management to keep it all running reliably.
Network management is the process of administering and managing computer networks.

Semi-Automatic Ground Environment

SAGESAGE projectSAGE System
In the late 1950s, early networks of computers included the U.S. military radar system Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE).
The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) was a system of large computers and associated networking equipment that coordinated data from many radar sites and processed it to produce a single unified image of the airspace over a wide area.

Paul Baran

Throughout the 1960s, Paul Baran, and Donald Davies independently developed the concept of packet switching to transfer information between computers over a network. Davies pioneered the implementation of the concept with the NPL network, a local area network at the National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom) using a line speed of 768 kbit/s.
Paul Baran (April 29, 1926 – March 26, 2011) was a Polish-born Jewish American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks.

Network traffic control

network traffictraffic controlcontrolling
Computer networks differ in the transmission medium used to carry their signals, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network's size, topology, traffic control mechanism and organizational intent.
In computer networking, network traffic control is the process of managing, controlling or reducing the network traffic, particularly Internet bandwidth, e.g. by the network scheduler.

NPL network

NPL Data Communications Network
Throughout the 1960s, Paul Baran, and Donald Davies independently developed the concept of packet switching to transfer information between computers over a network. Davies pioneered the implementation of the concept with the NPL network, a local area network at the National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom) using a line speed of 768 kbit/s.
The NPL Network or NPL Data Communications Network was a local area computer network operated by a team from the National Physical Laboratory in England that pioneered the concept of packet switching.

Wide area network

WANWANswide area networks
In 1966, Thomas Marill and Lawrence G. Roberts published a paper on an experimental wide area network (WAN) for computer time sharing.
A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunications network or computer network that extends over a large geographical distance/place.

OGAS

In 1959, Anatolii Ivanovich Kitov proposed to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union a detailed plan for the re-organisation of the control of the Soviet armed forces and of the Soviet economy on the basis of a network of computing centres, the OGAS.
OGAS (Общегосударственная автоматизированная система учёта и обработки информации, All-State Automated System) was a Soviet project to create a nationwide information network.

Instant messaging

instant messengerIMinstant message
Computer networks support an enormous number of applications and services such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications as well as many others.
Instant messaging is a set of communication technologies used for text-based communication between two or more participants over the Internet or other types of networks.

Ethernet

wiredJabbernetworking
In 1973, Robert Metcalfe wrote a formal memo at Xerox PARC describing Ethernet, a networking system that was based on the Aloha network, developed in the 1960s by Norman Abramson and colleagues at the University of Hawaii. In July 1976, Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs published their paper "Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks" and collaborated on several patents received in 1977 and 1978. In 1979, Robert Metcalfe pursued making Ethernet an open standard. A widely adopted family of transmission media used in local area network (LAN) technology is collectively known as Ethernet.
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).

CYCLADES

In 1973, the French CYCLADES network was the first to make the hosts responsible for the reliable delivery of data, rather than this being a centralized service of the network itself.
The CYCLADES computer network was a French research network created in the early 1970s.

Donald Davies

Donald Watts DaviesDavies, Donald W.Donald W. Davies, CBE, FRS
Throughout the 1960s, Paul Baran, and Donald Davies independently developed the concept of packet switching to transfer information between computers over a network. Davies pioneered the implementation of the concept with the NPL network, a local area network at the National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom) using a line speed of 768 kbit/s.
In 1965 he developed the concept of packet switching, which is today the dominant basis for data communications in computer networks worldwide, and implemented it in the NPL network.

ALOHAnet

Alohaslotted ALOHAALOHA network
In 1973, Robert Metcalfe wrote a formal memo at Xerox PARC describing Ethernet, a networking system that was based on the Aloha network, developed in the 1960s by Norman Abramson and colleagues at the University of Hawaii. In July 1976, Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs published their paper "Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks" and collaborated on several patents received in 1977 and 1978. In 1979, Robert Metcalfe pursued making Ethernet an open standard.
ALOHAnet, also known as the ALOHA System, or simply ALOHA, was a pioneering computer networking system developed at the University of Hawaii.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MITMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)M.I.T.
In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth College developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for distributed users of large computer systems. The same year, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer to route and manage telephone connections.
In addition to developing the predecessors to modern computing and networking technologies, students, staff, and faculty members at Project MAC, the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and the Tech Model Railroad Club wrote some of the earliest interactive computer video games like Spacewar! and created much of modern hacker slang and culture.

Telecommunications network

networkcommunication networkcommunications network
A computer network is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
computer networks

Leonard Kleinrock

Kleinrock Internet Heritage Site and ArchiveLen KleinrockLeonard Klienrock
In 1969, the first four nodes of the ARPANET were connected using 50 kbit/s circuits between the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah. Leonard Kleinrock carried out theoretical work to model the performance of packet-switched networks, which underpinned the development of the ARPANET. His theoretical work on hierarchical routing in the late 1970s with student Farouk Kamoun remains critical to the operation of the Internet today.
A professor at UCLA's Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science, he made several important contributions to the field of computer networking, in particular to the theoretical foundations of computer networking.

Distributed computing

distributeddistributed systemsdistributed system
Distributed computing uses computing resources across a network to accomplish tasks.
A distributed system is a system whose components are located on different networked computers, which communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages to one another.

Security hacker

hackerhackinghackers
A computer network may be used by security hackers to deploy computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected to the network, or to prevent these devices from accessing the network via a denial-of-service attack.
A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network.

ARCNET

ARCNET hubARCnet LAN
In 1976, John Murphy of Datapoint Corporation created ARCNET, a token-passing network first used to share storage devices.
ARCNET was the first widely available networking system for microcomputers; it became popular in the 1980s for office automation tasks.

Computer worm

wormswormcomputer worms
A computer network may be used by security hackers to deploy computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected to the network, or to prevent these devices from accessing the network via a denial-of-service attack.
Often, it uses a computer network to spread itself, relying on security failures on the target computer to access it. Worms almost always cause at least some harm to the network, even if only by consuming bandwidth, whereas viruses almost always corrupt or modify files on a targeted computer.

Local area network

LANlocal networklocal
A widely adopted family of transmission media used in local area network (LAN) technology is collectively known as Ethernet.
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.