Computer program

programprogramscomputer programsprogrammablesoftware programcodesoftwareprogrammedsoftware codeapplication
A computer program is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer.wikipedia
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Computer

computerscomputer systemdigital computer
A computer program is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer.
Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks.

Compiler

compiledcompilerscompile
From the program in its human-readable form of source code, a compiler can derive machine code—a form consisting of instructions that the computer can directly execute.
A compiler is a computer program that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).

Interpreter (computing)

interpreterinterpretedinterpreters
Alternatively, a computer program may be executed with the aid of an interpreter.
In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program.

Library (computing)

librarylibrariessoftware library
A collection of computer programs, libraries, and related data are referred to as software.
In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.

Programming language

programming languageslanguagedialect
A computer program is usually written by a computer programmer in a programming language.
A programming language is a notation for writing programs, which are specifications of a computation or algorithm.

Execution (computing)

executionexecutedexecute
A computer program is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer.
Execution in computer and software engineering is the process by which a computer or virtual machine executes the instructions of a computer program.

Software

computer softwaresoftware technologyprogram
A collection of computer programs, libraries, and related data are referred to as software.
In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all information processed by computer systems, programs and data.

Machine code

machine languagenative codemachine instruction
From the program in its human-readable form of source code, a compiler can derive machine code—a form consisting of instructions that the computer can directly execute.
Machine code is a strictly numerical language which is intended to run as fast as possible, and may be regarded as the lowest-level representation of a compiled or assembled computer program or as a primitive and hardware-dependent programming language.

Application software

applicationapplicationssoftware application
Computer programs may be categorized along functional lines, such as application software and system software.
In information technology, an application (app), application program or software application is a computer program designed to help people perform an activity.

Data (computing)

datacomputer datadata representation
A collection of computer programs, libraries, and related data are referred to as software.
A program is a set of data that consists of a series of coded software instructions to control the operation of a computer or other machine.

Source code

codesourcesource file
From the program in its human-readable form of source code, a compiler can derive machine code—a form consisting of instructions that the computer can directly execute. Computer programming is the process of writing or editing source code.
The source code which constitutes a program is usually held in one or more text files stored on a computer's hard disk; usually these files are carefully arranged into a directory tree, known as a source tree. Source code can also be stored in a database (as is common for stored procedures) or elsewhere.

Von Neumann architecture

von Neumannvon Neumann bottleneckvon Neumann machine
This machine is considered by some to be the origin of the stored-program computer—used by John von Neumann (1946) for the "Electronic Computing Instrument" that now bears the von Neumann architecture name.
A stored-program digital computer keeps both program instructions and data in read-write, random-access memory (RAM).

Bernoulli number

Bernoulli Numbersgeneralized Bernoulli numberAn identity
The translation contained Note G which completely detailed a method for calculating Bernoulli numbers using the Analytical Engine.
As a result, the Bernoulli numbers have the distinction of being the subject of the first published complex computer program.

Algorithm

algorithmscomputer algorithmalgorithm design
The underlying method used for some calculation or manipulation is known as an algorithm.
Most algorithms are intended to be implemented as computer programs.

Turing completeness

Turing-completeTuring completeuniversal
In 1936, Alan Turing introduced the Universal Turing machine—a theoretical device that can model every computation that can be performed on a Turing complete computing machine.
This says nothing about the effort needed to write the program, or the time it may take for the machine to perform the calculation, or any abilities the machine may possess that have nothing to do with computation.

Emulator

emulationemulatedemulate
Each model also could emulate other computers.
Emulation refers to the ability of a computer program in an electronic device to emulate (or imitate) another program or device.

Bit

binary digitbitsbinary digits
Only three bits of memory were available to store each instruction, so it was limited to eight instructions.
The correspondence between these values and the physical states of the underlying storage or device is a matter of convention, and different assignments may be used even within the same device or program.

Punched card

punched cardspunch cardpunch cards
It used punched card machines for input and output, and it was controlled with a clock signal.
Many early digital computers used punched cards, often prepared using keypunch machines, as the primary medium for input of both computer programs and data.

Computer programming

programmingcodingcomputer programmer
Computer programming is the process of writing or editing source code.
Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.

Analytical Engine

Babbage's Analytical Enginemechanicalmechanical computer
In 1837, Charles Babbage was inspired by Jacquard's loom to attempt to build the Analytical Engine.
If the Analytical Engine had been built, it would have been digital, programmable and Turing-complete.

Functional programming

functionalfunctional programming languagefunctional language
Two broad categories of declarative languages are functional languages and logical languages.
In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data.

History of computing hardware

history of computerscomputer historyearly computers
The earliest programmable machines preceded the invention of the digital computer.
Stored-program computers, by contrast, were designed to store a set of instructions (a program), in memory – typically the same memory as stored data.

Control flow

looploopscontrol structure
A statement might assign an expression to a variable or use the value of a variable to alter the program's control flow – for example:
In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.

Central processing unit

CPUprocessorprocessors
Object code needs further processing to become machine code, and machine code consists of the central processing unit's native instructions, ready for execution.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logic, controlling, and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

Imperative programming

imperativeimperative programming languageimperative language
Two of the main paradigms are imperative and declarative.
Recipes and process checklists, while not computer programs, are also familiar concepts that are similar in style to imperative programming; each step is an instruction, and the physical world holds the state.