Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".
A picture showing scratches on the readable surface of a CD-R. Music and data CDs are coded using error correcting codes and thus can still be read even if they have minor scratches using error detection and correction.
Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II to encrypt communications of the German High Command
Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm intended for processing on a computer.
Alphabet shift ciphers are believed to have been used by Julius Caesar over 2,000 years ago. This is an example with k = 3. In other words, the letters in the alphabet are shifted three in one direction to encrypt and three in the other direction to decrypt.
Reconstructed ancient Greek scytale, an early cipher device
First page of a book by Al-Kindi which discusses encryption of messages
16th-century book-shaped French cipher machine, with arms of Henri II of France
Enciphered letter from Gabriel de Luetz d'Aramon, French Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, after 1546, with partial decipherment
Symmetric-key cryptography, where a single key is used for encryption and decryption
One round (out of 8.5) of the IDEA cipher, used in most versions of PGP and OpenPGP compatible software for time-efficient encryption of messages
Public-key cryptography, where different keys are used for encryption and decryption.
Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman, authors of the first published paper on public-key cryptography.
In this example the message is only signed and not encrypted.
1) Alice signs a message with her private key.
2) Bob can verify that Alice sent the message and that the message has not been modified.
Variants of the Enigma machine, used by Germany's military and civil authorities from the late 1920s through World War II, implemented a complex electro-mechanical polyalphabetic cipher. Breaking and reading of the Enigma cipher at Poland's Cipher Bureau, for 7 years before the war, and subsequent decryption at Bletchley Park, was important to Allied victory.
Poznań monument (center) to Polish cryptanalysts whose breaking of Germany's Enigma machine ciphers, beginning in 1932, altered the course of World War II
NSA headquarters in Fort Meade, Maryland

Computer science spans theoretical disciplines (such as algorithms, theory of computation, information theory and automation) to practical disciplines (including the design and implementation of hardware and software).

- Computer science

The field is at the intersection of probability theory, statistics, computer science, statistical mechanics, information engineering, and electrical engineering.

- Information theory

Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication science, and physics.

- Cryptography

The fields of cryptography and computer security involve studying the means for secure communication and for preventing security vulnerabilities.

- Computer science

The theory has also found applications in other areas, including statistical inference, cryptography, neurobiology, perception, linguistics, the evolution and function of molecular codes (bioinformatics), thermal physics, molecular dynamics, quantum computing, black holes, information retrieval, intelligence gathering, plagiarism detection, pattern recognition, anomaly detection and even art creation.

- Information theory

This fundamental principle was first explicitly stated in 1883 by Auguste Kerckhoffs and is generally called Kerckhoffs's Principle; alternatively and more bluntly, it was restated by Claude Shannon, the inventor of information theory and the fundamentals of theoretical cryptography, as Shannon's Maxim—'the enemy knows the system'.

- Cryptography
Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".

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