Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".
3rd century BC Greek mathematician Euclid (holding calipers), as imagined by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens (1509–1511)
René Descartes, who is often credited as the father of modern philosophy, was often preoccupied with epistemological questions in his work.
Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm intended for processing on a computer.
The distribution of prime numbers is a central point of study in number theory. This Ulam spiral serves to illustrate it, hinting, in particular, at the conditional independence between being prime and being a value of certain quadratic polynomials.
Bertrand Russell famously brought attention to the distinction between propositional knowledge and knowledge by acquaintance.
The quadratic formula expresses concisely the solutions of all quadratic equations
An Euler diagram representing a version of the traditional definition of knowledge that is adapted to the Gettier problem. This problem gives us reason to think that not all justified true beliefs constitute knowledge.
Rubik's cube: the study of its possible moves is a concrete application of group theory
The analytic–synthetic distinction was first proposed by Immanuel Kant.
The Babylonian mathematical tablet Plimpton 322, dated to 1800 BC.
David Hume, one of the most staunch defenders of empiricism.
Archimedes used the method of exhaustion, depicted here, to approximate the value of pi.
The numerals used in the Bakhshali manuscript, dated between the 2nd century BC and the 2nd century AD.
A page from al-Khwārizmī's Algebra
Leonardo Fibonacci, the Italian mathematician who introduced the Hindu–Arabic numeral system invented between the 1st and 4th centuries by Indian mathematicians, to the Western World.
Leonhard Euler created and popularized much of the mathematical notation used today.
Carl Friedrich Gauss, known as the prince of mathematicians
The front side of the Fields Medal
Euler's identity, which American physicist Richard Feynman once called "the most remarkable formula in mathematics".

Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural sciences, engineering, medicine, finance, computer science and social sciences.

- Mathematics

In the early days of computing, a number of terms for the practitioners of the field of computing were suggested in the Communications of the ACM—turingineer, turologist, flow-charts-man, applied meta-mathematician, and applied epistemologist.

- Computer science

Computer science research also often intersects other disciplines, such as cognitive science, linguistics, mathematics, physics, biology, Earth science, statistics, philosophy, and logic.

- Computer science

There is no general consensus about the exact definition or epistemological status of mathematics.

- Mathematics

Certain forms exempt disciplines such as mathematics and logic from these requirements.

- Epistemology

Work in this area spans several academic fields, including philosophy, computer science, economics, and statistics.

- Epistemology
Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".

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Argument terminology used in logic


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Study of correct reasoning or good arguments.

Study of correct reasoning or good arguments.

Argument terminology used in logic
Aristotle, 384–322 BCE.
A depiction from the 15th century of the square of opposition, which expresses the fundamental dualities of syllogistic.

Extended logics accept the basic intuitions behind classical logic and extend it to other fields, such as metaphysics, ethics, and epistemology.

Logic is studied in and applied to various fields, such as philosophy, mathematics, computer science, and linguistics.