Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".
Simon circa 1981
Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm intended for processing on a computer.
Simon (left) in a chess match against Allen Newell c. 1958
Simon's three stages in Rational Decision Making: Intelligence, Design, Choice (IDC)

Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American political scientist, with a Ph.D. in political science, whose work also influenced the fields of computer science, economics, and cognitive psychology.

- Herbert A. Simon

Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon argued in 1975, "Computer science is an empirical discipline. We would have called it an experimental science, but like astronomy, economics, and geology, some of its unique forms of observation and experience do not fit a narrow stereotype of the experimental method. Nonetheless, they are experiments. Each new machine that is built is an experiment. Actually constructing the machine poses a question to nature; and we listen for the answer by observing the machine in operation and analyzing it by all analytical and measurement means available."

- Computer science
Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Silver didrachma from Crete depicting Talos, an ancient mythical automaton with artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence

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Intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to the natural intelligence displayed by animals including humans.

Intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to the natural intelligence displayed by animals including humans.

Silver didrachma from Crete depicting Talos, an ancient mythical automaton with artificial intelligence
An ontology represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts.
A parse tree represents the syntactic structure of a sentence according to some formal grammar.
Feature detection (pictured: edge detection) helps AI compose informative abstract structures out of raw data.
Kismet, a robot with rudimentary social skills
A particle swarm seeking the global minimum
Expectation-maximization clustering of Old Faithful eruption data starts from a random guess but then successfully converges on an accurate clustering of the two physically distinct modes of eruption.
A neural network is an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in the human brain.
Representing images on multiple layers of abstraction in deep learning
For this project the AI had to learn the typical patterns in the colors and brushstrokes of Renaissance painter Raphael. The portrait shows the face of the actress Ornella Muti, "painted" by AI in the style of Raphael.
AI Patent families for functional application categories and sub categories. Computer vision represents 49 percent of patent families related to a functional application in 2016.
The word "robot" itself was coined by Karel Čapek in his 1921 play R.U.R., the title standing for "Rossum's Universal Robots"

AI also draws upon computer science, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and many other fields.

Proponents included Allen Newell, Herbert A. Simon, and Marvin Minsky.

Allen Newell

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Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 – July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND Corporation and at Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Computer Science, Tepper School of Business, and Department of Psychology.

He contributed to the Information Processing Language (1956) and two of the earliest AI programs, the Logic Theory Machine (1956) and the General Problem Solver (1957) (with Herbert A. Simon).

Figure illustrating the fields that contributed to the birth of cognitive science, including linguistics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, philosophy, anthropology, and psychology

Cognitive science

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Figure illustrating the fields that contributed to the birth of cognitive science, including linguistics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, philosophy, anthropology, and psychology
A well known example of a phrase structure tree. This is one way of representing human language that shows how different components are organized hierarchically.
The Necker cube, an example of an optical illusion
An optical illusion. The square A is exactly the same shade of gray as square B. See checker shadow illusion.
Image of the human head with the brain. The arrow indicates the position of the hypothalamus.
An artificial neural network with two layers.

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes with input from linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, computer science/artificial intelligence, and anthropology.

In artificial intelligence, Marvin Minsky, Herbert A. Simon, and Allen Newell are prominent.