A report on Computer science

Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".
Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm intended for processing on a computer.

Study of computation, automation, and information.

- Computer science
Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".

91 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Figure illustrating the fields that contributed to the birth of cognitive science, including linguistics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, philosophy, anthropology, and psychology

Cognitive science

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Figure illustrating the fields that contributed to the birth of cognitive science, including linguistics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, philosophy, anthropology, and psychology
A well known example of a phrase structure tree. This is one way of representing human language that shows how different components are organized hierarchically.
The Necker cube, an example of an optical illusion
An optical illusion. The square A is exactly the same shade of gray as square B. See checker shadow illusion.
Image of the human head with the brain. The arrow indicates the position of the hypothalamus.
An artificial neural network with two layers.

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes with input from linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, computer science/artificial intelligence, and anthropology.

Machine learning as subfield of AI

Machine learning

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Field of inquiry devoted to understanding and building methods that 'learn', that is, methods that leverage data to improve performance on some set of tasks.

Field of inquiry devoted to understanding and building methods that 'learn', that is, methods that leverage data to improve performance on some set of tasks.

Machine learning as subfield of AI
Part of machine learning as subfield of AI or part of AI as subfield of machine learning
A support-vector machine is a supervised learning model that divides the data into regions separated by a linear boundary. Here, the linear boundary divides the black circles from the white.
An artificial neural network is an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in a brain. Here, each circular node represents an artificial neuron and an arrow represents a connection from the output of one artificial neuron to the input of another.
Illustration of linear regression on a data set.
A simple Bayesian network. Rain influences whether the sprinkler is activated, and both rain and the sprinkler influence whether the grass is wet.
The blue line could be an example of overfitting a linear function due to random noise.

Neural networks research had been abandoned by AI and computer science around the same time.

A data structure known as a hash table.

Data structure

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A data structure known as a hash table.

In computer science, a data structure is a data organization, management, and storage format that is usually chosen for efficient access to data.

The lowercase Greek letter λ (lambda) is an unofficial symbol of the field of programming-language theory. This usage derives from the lambda calculus, a model of computation introduced by Alonzo Church in the 1930s and widely used by programming-language researchers. It graces the cover of the classic text Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, and the title of the so-called Lambda Papers of 1975 to 1980, written by Gerald Jay Sussman and Guy Steele, the developers of the Scheme programming language.

Programming language theory

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The lowercase Greek letter λ (lambda) is an unofficial symbol of the field of programming-language theory. This usage derives from the lambda calculus, a model of computation introduced by Alonzo Church in the 1930s and widely used by programming-language researchers. It graces the cover of the classic text Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, and the title of the so-called Lambda Papers of 1975 to 1980, written by Gerald Jay Sussman and Guy Steele, the developers of the Scheme programming language.

Programming language theory (PLT) is a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of formal languages known as programming languages and of their individual features.

Network Packet

Computer network

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Set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes.

Set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes.

Network Packet
Common network topologies
A sample overlay network
Network links
Fiber optic cables are used to transmit light from one computer/network node to another
2007 map showing submarine optical fiber telecommunication cables around the world.
Computers are very often connected to networks using wireless links
An ATM network interface in the form of an accessory card. A lot of network interfaces are built-in.
A typical home or small office router showing the ADSL telephone line and Ethernet network cable connections
Firewalls
The TCP/IP model and its relation to common protocols used at different layers of the model.
Message flows between two devices (A-B) at the four layers of the TCP/IP model in the presence of a router (R). Red flows are effective communication paths, black paths are across the actual network links.
SONET & SDH
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Routing calculates good paths through a network for information to take. For example, from node 1 to node 6 the best routes are likely to be 1-8-7-6, 1-8-10-6 or 1-9-10-6, as these are the shortest routes.
Partial map of the Internet, based on the January 15, 2005 data found on opte.org . Each line is drawn between two nodes, representing two IP addresses. The length of the lines is indicative of the delay between those two nodes. This graph represents less than 30% of the Class C networks reachable.

Computer networking may be considered a branch of computer science, computer engineering, and telecommunications, since it relies on the theoretical and practical application of the related disciplines.

An artistic representation of a Turing machine. Turing machines are frequently used as theoretical models for computing.

Theory of computation

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Branch that deals with what problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm, how efficiently they can be solved or to what degree .

Branch that deals with what problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm, how efficiently they can be solved or to what degree .

An artistic representation of a Turing machine. Turing machines are frequently used as theoretical models for computing.
Set inclusions described by the Chomsky hierarchy
A representation of the relation among complexity classes

Perhaps the most important open problem in all of computer science is the question of whether a certain broad class of problems denoted NP can be solved efficiently.

Mathematical logic

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Study of formal logic within mathematics.

Study of formal logic within mathematics.

Computer scientists often focus on concrete programming languages and feasible computability, while researchers in mathematical logic often focus on computability as a theoretical concept and on noncomputability.

This computer motherboard used in a personal computer is the result of computer engineering efforts.

Computer engineering

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This computer motherboard used in a personal computer is the result of computer engineering efforts.
The Difference Engine, the first mechanical computer.
ENIAC, the first electronic computer.
Source code written in the C programming language.
Windows 10, an example of an operating system.
An example of a computer CPU.
An example of a humanoid robot.
Examples of devices that use embedded systems.

Computer engineering (CoE or CpE) is a branch of electrical engineering that integrates several fields of computer science and electronic engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.

Portrait by Christoph Bernhard Francke, 1695

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

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German polymath active as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist and diplomat.

German polymath active as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist and diplomat.

Portrait by Christoph Bernhard Francke, 1695
Engraving of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Stepped reckoner
Leibniz's correspondence, papers and notes from 1669 to 1704, National Library of Poland.
A page from Leibniz's manuscript of the Monadology
A diagram of I Ching hexagrams sent to Leibniz from Joachim Bouvet. The Arabic numerals were added by Leibniz.
Leibnizstrasse street sign Berlin
Commercium philosophicum et mathematicum (1745), a collection of letters between Leibnitz and Johann Bernoulli

Leibniz also made major contributions to physics and technology, and anticipated notions that surfaced much later in probability theory, biology, medicine, geology, psychology, linguistics and computer science.

Formal methods

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In computer science, formal methods are mathematically rigorous techniques for the specification, development, and verification of software and hardware systems.