Computer science

Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".
Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm intended for processing on a computer.

Study of computation, automation, and information.

- Computer science
Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".

91 related topics

Alpha

Network Packet

Computer network

Set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes.

Set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes.

Network Packet
Common network topologies
A sample overlay network
Network links
Fiber optic cables are used to transmit light from one computer/network node to another
2007 map showing submarine optical fiber telecommunication cables around the world.
Computers are very often connected to networks using wireless links
An ATM network interface in the form of an accessory card. A lot of network interfaces are built-in.
A typical home or small office router showing the ADSL telephone line and Ethernet network cable connections
Firewalls
The TCP/IP model and its relation to common protocols used at different layers of the model.
Message flows between two devices (A-B) at the four layers of the TCP/IP model in the presence of a router (R). Red flows are effective communication paths, black paths are across the actual network links.
SONET & SDH
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Routing calculates good paths through a network for information to take. For example, from node 1 to node 6 the best routes are likely to be 1-8-7-6, 1-8-10-6 or 1-9-10-6, as these are the shortest routes.
Partial map of the Internet, based on the January 15, 2005 data found on opte.org . Each line is drawn between two nodes, representing two IP addresses. The length of the lines is indicative of the delay between those two nodes. This graph represents less than 30% of the Class C networks reachable.

Computer networking may be considered a branch of computer science, computer engineering, and telecommunications, since it relies on the theoretical and practical application of the related disciplines.

Ways to study a system

Computational science

Algorithms (numerical and non-numerical): mathematical models, computational models, and computer simulations developed to solve science (e.g., biological, physical, and social), engineering, and humanities problems

Algorithms (numerical and non-numerical): mathematical models, computational models, and computer simulations developed to solve science (e.g., biological, physical, and social), engineering, and humanities problems

Ways to study a system

CSE should neither be confused with pure computer science, nor with computer engineering, although a wide domain in the former is used in CSE (e.g., certain algorithms, data structures, parallel programming, high-performance computing), and some problems in the latter can be modeled and solved with CSE methods (as an application area).

A phrenological mapping of the brain – phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain although it is now widely discredited.

Philosophy of mind

Branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relationship with the body.

Branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relationship with the body.

A phrenological mapping of the brain – phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain although it is now widely discredited.
René Descartes' illustration of mind/body dualism.
Portrait of René Descartes by Frans Hals (1648)
Four varieties of dualism. The arrows indicate the direction of the causal interactions. Occasionalism is not shown.
The classic Identity theory and Anomalous Monism in contrast. For the Identity theory, every token instantiation of a single mental type corresponds (as indicated by the arrows) to a physical token of a single physical type. For anomalous monism, the token–token correspondences can fall outside of the type–type correspondences. The result is token identity.
John Searle—one of the most influential philosophers of mind, proponent of biological naturalism (Berkeley 2002)
Since the 1980s, sophisticated neuroimaging procedures, such as fMRI (above), have furnished increasing knowledge about the workings of the human brain, shedding light on ancient philosophical problems.

These approaches have been particularly influential in the sciences, especially in the fields of sociobiology, computer science (specifically, artificial intelligence), evolutionary psychology and the various neurosciences.

Representation of the expression (8-6)*(3+1) as a Lisp tree, from a 1985 Master's Thesis.

Computer algebra

RischIntegration.PNG of the algebraic function

RischIntegration.PNG of the algebraic function

Representation of the expression (8-6)*(3+1) as a Lisp tree, from a 1985 Master's Thesis.

In mathematics and computer science, computer algebra, also called symbolic computation or algebraic computation, is a scientific area that refers to the study and development of algorithms and software for manipulating mathematical expressions and other mathematical objects.

Informatics Forum, completed in 2008. It houses researchers of the University of Edinburgh's School of Informatics.

Informatics

Study of computational systems, especially those for data storage and retrieval.

Study of computational systems, especially those for data storage and retrieval.

Informatics Forum, completed in 2008. It houses researchers of the University of Edinburgh's School of Informatics.

According to ACM Europe and Informatics Europe, informatics is synonymous with computer science and computing as a profession, in which the central notion is transformation of information.

Efficient solutions to the vehicle routing problem require tools from combinatorial optimization and integer programming.

Applied mathematics

Efficient solutions to the vehicle routing problem require tools from combinatorial optimization and integer programming.
A numerical solution to the heat equation on a pump casing model using the finite element method.
Fluid mechanics is often considered a branch of applied mathematics and mechanical engineering.
Mathematical finance is concerned with the modelling of financial markets.
The Brown University Division of Applied Mathematics is the oldest applied math program in the U.S.
Applied mathematics has substantial overlap with statistics.

Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as physics, engineering, medicine, biology, finance, business, computer science, and industry.

Object detection for a stop sign.

Information engineering (field)

Engineering discipline that deals with the generation, distribution, analysis, and use of information, data, and knowledge in systems.

Engineering discipline that deals with the generation, distribution, analysis, and use of information, data, and knowledge in systems.

Object detection for a stop sign.
An example of clustering in machine learning.
An example of how the 2D Fourier transform can be used to remove unwanted information from an X-ray scan.

Many of these originate from computer science, as well as other branches of engineering such as computer engineering, electrical engineering, and bioengineering.

Alan Turing: computer scientist and namesake developer of the Turing test as a method of measuring the intelligence of a machine

Computational linguistics

Interdisciplinary field concerned with the computational modelling of natural language, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions.

Interdisciplinary field concerned with the computational modelling of natural language, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions.

Alan Turing: computer scientist and namesake developer of the Turing test as a method of measuring the intelligence of a machine
Joseph Weizenbaum: former MIT professor and computer scientist who developed ELIZA, a primitive computer program utilizing natural language processing.

In general, computational linguistics draws upon linguistics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mathematics, logic, philosophy, cognitive science, cognitive psychology, psycholinguistics, anthropology and neuroscience, among others.

Arithmetic tables for children, Lausanne, 1835

Computation

Any type of arithmetic or non-arithmetic calculation that follows a well-defined model .

Any type of arithmetic or non-arithmetic calculation that follows a well-defined model .

Arithmetic tables for children, Lausanne, 1835

An especially well-known discipline of the study of computation is computer science.

Stephen Kettle's slate statue of Alan Turing at Bletchley Park

Turing Award

Stephen Kettle's slate statue of Alan Turing at Bletchley Park

The ACM A. M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) for contributions of lasting and major technical importance to computer science.