A report on Computer science

Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".
Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm intended for processing on a computer.

Study of computation, automation, and information.

- Computer science
Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".

91 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The probabilities of rolling several numbers using two dice.

Probability

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Branch of mathematics concerning numerical descriptions of how likely an event is to occur, or how likely it is that a proposition is true.

Branch of mathematics concerning numerical descriptions of how likely an event is to occur, or how likely it is that a proposition is true.

The probabilities of rolling several numbers using two dice.
Gerolamo Cardano (16th century)
Christiaan Huygens published one of the first books on probability (17th century)
Carl Friedrich Gauss

These concepts have been given an axiomatic mathematical formalization in probability theory, which is used widely in areas of study such as statistics, mathematics, science, finance, gambling, artificial intelligence, machine learning, computer science, game theory, and philosophy to, for example, draw inferences about the expected frequency of events.

A phrenological mapping of the brain – phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain although it is now widely discredited.

Philosophy of mind

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Branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relationship with the body.

Branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relationship with the body.

A phrenological mapping of the brain – phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain although it is now widely discredited.
René Descartes' illustration of mind/body dualism.
Portrait of René Descartes by Frans Hals (1648)
Four varieties of dualism. The arrows indicate the direction of the causal interactions. Occasionalism is not shown.
The classic Identity theory and Anomalous Monism in contrast. For the Identity theory, every token instantiation of a single mental type corresponds (as indicated by the arrows) to a physical token of a single physical type. For anomalous monism, the token–token correspondences can fall outside of the type–type correspondences. The result is token identity.
John Searle—one of the most influential philosophers of mind, proponent of biological naturalism (Berkeley 2002)
Since the 1980s, sophisticated neuroimaging procedures, such as fMRI (above), have furnished increasing knowledge about the workings of the human brain, shedding light on ancient philosophical problems.

These approaches have been particularly influential in the sciences, especially in the fields of sociobiology, computer science (specifically, artificial intelligence), evolutionary psychology and the various neurosciences.

Efficient solutions to the vehicle routing problem require tools from combinatorial optimization and integer programming.

Applied mathematics

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Efficient solutions to the vehicle routing problem require tools from combinatorial optimization and integer programming.
A numerical solution to the heat equation on a pump casing model using the finite element method.
Fluid mechanics is often considered a branch of applied mathematics and mechanical engineering.
Mathematical finance is concerned with the modelling of financial markets.
The Brown University Division of Applied Mathematics is the oldest applied math program in the U.S.
Applied mathematics has substantial overlap with statistics.

Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as physics, engineering, medicine, biology, finance, business, computer science, and industry.

Dijkstra in 2002

Edsger W. Dijkstra

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Dutch computer scientist, programmer, software engineer, systems scientist, and science essayist.

Dutch computer scientist, programmer, software engineer, systems scientist, and science essayist.

Dijkstra in 2002
The Eindhoven University of Technology, located in Eindhoven in the south of the Netherlands, where Dijkstra was a professor of mathematics from 1962 to 1984.
The University of Texas at Austin, where Dijkstra held the Schlumberger Centennial Chair in Computer Sciences from 1984 until 1999.
Dijkstra's algorithm. It picks the unvisited vertex with the lowest-distance, calculates the distance through it to each unvisited neighbor, and updates the neighbor's distance if smaller. Mark visited (set to red) when done with neighbors.
ALGOL 60 was created as the result of the January 1960 ALGOL conference in Paris. By August 1960, Dijkstra and his colleague Jaap Zonneveld put into operation the first complete working ALGOL 60 compiler (for the Electrologica X1 computer) in the world. The Dijkstra–Zonneveld compiler predates the second ALGOL 60 compiler (by another group) by more than a year.
A semaphore (seinpaal), the term used in Dijkstra's original paper. In the early 1960s Dijkstra proposed the first synchronisation mechanism for concurrent processes, the semaphore with its two operations, P and V.
A simple example of two processes modifying a linked list at the same time causing a conflict. The requirement of mutual exclusion was first identified and solved by Dijkstra in his seminal 1965 paper titled Solution of a problem in concurrent programming control, and is credited as the first topic in the study of concurrent algorithms.
Illustration of the dining philosophers problem
Dijkstra at the blackboard during a conference at ETH Zurich in 1994. He once remarked, "A picture may be worth a thousand words, a formula is worth a thousand pictures."

To mark the occasion and to celebrate his forty-plus years of seminal contributions to computing science, the Department of Computer Sciences organized a symposium, which took place on his 70th birthday in May 2000.

Ways to study a system

Computational science

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Algorithms (numerical and non-numerical): mathematical models, computational models, and computer simulations developed to solve science (e.g., biological, physical, and social), engineering, and humanities problems

Algorithms (numerical and non-numerical): mathematical models, computational models, and computer simulations developed to solve science (e.g., biological, physical, and social), engineering, and humanities problems

Ways to study a system

CSE should neither be confused with pure computer science, nor with computer engineering, although a wide domain in the former is used in CSE (e.g., certain algorithms, data structures, parallel programming, high-performance computing), and some problems in the latter can be modeled and solved with CSE methods (as an application area).

Domain theory

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Branch of mathematics that studies special kinds of partially ordered sets commonly called domains.

Branch of mathematics that studies special kinds of partially ordered sets commonly called domains.

The field has major applications in computer science, where it is used to specify denotational semantics, especially for functional programming languages.

George Forsythe

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American computer scientist and numerical analyst who founded and led Stanford University's Computer Science Department.

American computer scientist and numerical analyst who founded and led Stanford University's Computer Science Department.

He served as the president of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), and also co-authored four books on computer science and a fifth on meteorology, and edited more than 75 other books on computer science.

Type system

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In computer science, particularly programming languages, a type system is a logical system comprising a set of rules that assigns a property called a type to every "term", usually the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.

Data communication

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Transfer and reception of data in the form of a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.

Transfer and reception of data in the form of a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.

Basic principles of data transmission may also be covered within the computer science or computer engineering topic of data communications, which also includes computer networking applications and communication protocols, for example routing, switching and inter-process communication.

Communications of the ACM

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Monthly journal of the Association for Computing Machinery .

Monthly journal of the Association for Computing Machinery .

Articles are intended for readers with backgrounds in all areas of computer science and information systems.