Computer security

cybersecuritycyber securitysecurityIT securityComputer insecuritysoftware securitycyber-securitysecuresecurity architecturecomputer
Computer security, cybersecurity or information technology security (IT security) is the protection of computer systems from the theft of or damage to their hardware, software, or electronic data, as well as from the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.wikipedia
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Threat (computer)

threatthreatscyber threats
To secure a computer system, it is important to understand the attacks that can be made against it, and these threats can typically be classified into one of these categories below:
In computer security, a threat is a possible danger that might exploit a vulnerability to breach security and therefore cause possible harm.

Zombie (computing)

Zombie (computer science)zombie computerzombies
Such attacks can originate from the zombie computers of a botnet, but a range of other techniques are possible including reflection and amplification attacks, where innocent systems are fooled into sending traffic to the victim.
In computing, a zombie is a computer connected to the Internet that has been compromised by a hacker, computer virus or trojan horse program and can be used to perform malicious tasks of one sort or another under remote direction.

Narus (company)

NarusNarusInsighthigh speed surveillance computers
For instance, programs such as Carnivore and NarusInSight have been used by the FBI and NSA to eavesdrop on the systems of internet service providers.
Narus Inc. was a software company and vendor of big data analytics for cybersecurity.

Hacktivism

hacktivisthacktivistsReality hacking
Not all attacks are financially motivated however; for example security firm HBGary Federal suffered a serious series of attacks in 2011 from hacktivist group Anonymous in retaliation for the firm's CEO claiming to have infiltrated their group, and in the Sony Pictures attack of 2014 the motive appears to have been to embarrass with data leaks, and cripple the company by wiping workstations and servers.
But just as hack can sometimes mean cyber crime, hacktivism can be used to mean activism that is malicious, destructive, and undermining the security of the Internet as a technical, economic, and political platform.

Stuxnet

cyberattacksIran in 2010Staxnut
The Internet is a potential attack vector for such machines if connected, but the Stuxnet worm demonstrated that even equipment controlled by computers not connected to the Internet can be vulnerable.
In the United Kingdom on 25 November 2010, Sky News reported that it had received information from an anonymous source at an unidentified IT security organization that Stuxnet, or a variation of the worm, had been traded on the black market.

Security

security systemssecurity breachsecurity culture
Serious financial damage has been caused by security breaches, but because there is no standard model for estimating the cost of an incident, the only data available is that which is made public by the organizations involved. According to the classic Gordon-Loeb Model analyzing the optimal investment level in information security, one can conclude that the amount a firm spends to protect information should generally be only a small fraction of the expected loss (i.e., the expected value of the loss resulting from a cyber/information security breach).
The term is also used to refer to acts and systems whose purpose may be to provide security (e.g. security forces; security guard; cyber security systems; security cameras; remote guarding).

Social engineering (security)

social engineeringpretextingBlagger
Preying on a victim's trust, phishing can be classified as a form of social engineering.
Kevin Mitnick is an American computer security consultant, author and hacker, best known for his high-profile 1995 arrest and later five year conviction for various computer and communications-related crimes.

Vulnerability (computing)

vulnerabilitiesvulnerabilitysecurity vulnerabilities
For example, a standard computer user may be able to exploit a vulnerability in the system to gain access to restricted data; or even become "root" and have full unrestricted access to a system.
In computer security, a vulnerability is a weakness which can be exploited by a threat actor, such as an attacker, to perform unauthorized actions within a computer system.

Full disclosure (computer security)

full disclosurediscloseddisclosure of vulnerabilities
In the field of computer security, independent researchers often discover flaws in software that can be abused to cause unintended behaviour; these flaws are called vulnerabilities.

Instant messaging

instant messengerIMinstant message
Phishing is typically carried out by email spoofing or instant messaging, and it often directs users to enter details at a fake website whose "look" and "feel" are almost identical to the legitimate one.
The major IM providers usually cite the need for formal agreements, and security concerns as reasons for making these changes.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
The field is becoming more important due to increased reliance on computer systems, the Internet and wireless network standards such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, and due to the growth of "smart" devices, including smartphones, televisions, and the various devices that constitute the "Internet of things". A firewall can be defined as a way of filtering network data between a host or a network and another network, such as the Internet, and can be implemented as software running on the machine, hooking into the network stack (or, in the case of most UNIX-based operating systems such as Linux, built into the operating system kernel) to provide real-time filtering and blocking.
Access may be with computer security, i.e. authentication and encryption technologies, depending on the requirements.

Exploit (computer security)

exploitexploitssecurity exploit
For example, a standard computer user may be able to exploit a vulnerability in the system to gain access to restricted data; or even become "root" and have full unrestricted access to a system. An exploitable vulnerability is one for which at least one working attack or "exploit" exists.

Employee offboarding

Employee exit managementexit procedureoff-boarding
Today, computer security comprises mainly "preventive" measures, like firewalls or an exit procedure.
As part of computer security, the process will also ensure that access privileges are revoked when a person leaves, and may also cover other issues such as the recovery of equipment, keys and credit cards to ensure that security integrity be maintained.

Internet of things

IoTInternet of Things (IoT)Internet-of-Things
The field is becoming more important due to increased reliance on computer systems, the Internet and wireless network standards such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, and due to the growth of "smart" devices, including smartphones, televisions, and the various devices that constitute the "Internet of things".
Key challenges of increased digitalization in the water, transport or energy sector are related to privacy and cybersecurity which necessitate an adequate response from research and policymakers alike.

Capability-based security

capabilitycapabilitiescapability-based
Within computer systems, two of many security models capable of enforcing privilege separation are access control lists (ACLs) and capability-based security.
Capability-based security is a concept in the design of secure computing systems, one of the existing security models.

L4 microkernel family

L4L4 microkernelseL4
Operating systems formally verified include seL4, and SYSGO's PikeOS – but these make up a very small percentage of the market.
Since its introduction, L4 has been developed for platform independence and also in improving security, isolation, and robustness.

Common Criteria

ISO/IEC 15408Common Criteria for Information Technology Security EvaluationCC
In the 1980s the United States Department of Defense (DoD) used the "Orange Book" standards, but the current international standard ISO/IEC 15408, "Common Criteria" defines a number of progressively more stringent Evaluation Assurance Levels.
The Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation (referred to as Common Criteria or CC) is an international standard (ISO/IEC 15408) for computer security certification.

Advanced persistent threat

APTAdvanced Persistent ThreatsAPTs
Some organizations are turning to big data platforms, such as Apache Hadoop, to extend data accessibility and machine learning to detect advanced persistent threats.
Within the computer security community, and increasingly within the media, the term is almost always used in reference to a long-term pattern of sophisticated computer network exploitation aimed at governments, companies, and political activists, and by extension, also to ascribe the A, P and T attributes to the groups behind these attacks.

Kernel (operating system)

kerneloperating system kernelkernels
A firewall can be defined as a way of filtering network data between a host or a network and another network, such as the Internet, and can be implemented as software running on the machine, hooking into the network stack (or, in the case of most UNIX-based operating systems such as Linux, built into the operating system kernel) to provide real-time filtering and blocking.
An important consideration in the design of a kernel is the support it provides for protection from faults (fault tolerance) and from malicious behaviours (security).

E (programming language)

EE programming languageE language
An open source project in the area is the E language.
E is an object-oriented programming language for secure distributed computing, created by Mark S. Miller, Dan Bornstein, and others at Electric Communities in 1997.

Gordon–Loeb model

Gordon-Loeb Model
According to the classic Gordon-Loeb Model analyzing the optimal investment level in information security, one can conclude that the amount a firm spends to protect information should generally be only a small fraction of the expected loss (i.e., the expected value of the loss resulting from a cyber/information security breach).
Specifically, the model shows that it is generally inconvenient to invest in informatics security (including cybersecurity or computer security related activities) for amounts higher than 37% of the predicted loss.

Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria

Orange BookTCSECC2
In the 1980s the United States Department of Defense (DoD) used the "Orange Book" standards, but the current international standard ISO/IEC 15408, "Common Criteria" defines a number of progressively more stringent Evaluation Assurance Levels.
Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) is a United States Government Department of Defense (DoD) standard that sets basic requirements for assessing the effectiveness of computer security controls built into a computer system.

System administrator

system administrationadministratorsystem administrators
The system administrator seeks to ensure that the uptime, performance, resources, and security of the computers they manage meet the needs of the users, without exceeding a set budget when doing so.

Sandbox (computer security)

sandboxsandboxingsandboxed
In computer security, a "sandbox" is a security mechanism for separating running programs, usually in an effort to mitigate system failures or software vulnerabilities from spreading.

Spyware

anti-spywareantispywareSpyware removal software
Running anti-spyware software has become a widely recognized element of computer security practices, especially for computers running Microsoft Windows.