# Computer simulation

computer modelsimulationcomputer modelingcomputer modelsnumerical simulationcomputer simulationsmodelingmodelcomputational modelingcomputer modelling
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.wikipedia
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### Uncertainty quantification

aleatoric and epistemic uncertaintiesaleatoric and epistemic uncertaintyuncertainty
Because of the computational cost of simulation, computer experiments are used to perform inference such as uncertainty quantification.
Computer experiments on computer simulations are the most common approach to study problems in uncertainty quantification.

### Computer experiment

Because of the computational cost of simulation, computer experiments are used to perform inference such as uncertainty quantification.
Computer simulations are constructed to emulate a physical system.

### Partial differential equation

partial differential equationsPDEPDEs
PDEs are used to formulate problems involving functions of several variables, and are either solved by hand, or used to create a computer model.

### Dynamic simulation

dyamicdynamicDynamic system simulation
A numerical simulation is done by stepping through a time interval and calculating the integral of the derivatives by approximating the area under the derivative curves.

### Agent-based model

agent-basedagent-based modelingagent based model
An agent-based model (ABM) is a class of computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents (both individual or collective entities such as organizations or groups) with a view to assessing their effects on the system as a whole.

### Stencil code

stencil computations
They are most commonly found in the codes of computer simulations, e.g. for computational fluid dynamics in the context of scientific and engineering applications.

### Chemical process modeling

Process modelingchemical process modelling
Chemical process modeling is a computer modeling technique used in chemical engineering process design.

### Random number generation

random number generatorrandom numberrandom numbers
Random number generators have applications in gambling, statistical sampling, computer simulation, cryptography, completely randomized design, and other areas where producing an unpredictable result is desirable.

### The Limits to Growth

Limits to GrowthDynamoecological limits
Notable, and sometimes controversial, computer simulations used in science include: Donella Meadows' World3 used in the Limits to Growth, James Lovelock's Daisyworld and Thomas Ray's Tierra.
The Limits to Growth (LTG) is a 1972 report on the computer simulation of exponential economic and population growth with a finite supply of resources.

### Daisyworld

Notable, and sometimes controversial, computer simulations used in science include: Donella Meadows' World3 used in the Limits to Growth, James Lovelock's Daisyworld and Thomas Ray's Tierra.
Daisyworld, a computer simulation, is a hypothetical world orbiting a star whose radiant energy is slowly increasing or decreasing.

### Tierra (computer simulation)

Tierra
Notable, and sometimes controversial, computer simulations used in science include: Donella Meadows' World3 used in the Limits to Growth, James Lovelock's Daisyworld and Thomas Ray's Tierra.
Tierra is a computer simulation developed by ecologist Thomas S. Ray in the early 1990s in which computer programs compete for time (central processing unit (CPU) time) and space (access to main memory).

Computer models are required to conduct this analysis, because of the complex variables involved, including vehicle emissions, vehicle speed, meteorology, and terrain geometry.

### World3

Notable, and sometimes controversial, computer simulations used in science include: Donella Meadows' World3 used in the Limits to Growth, James Lovelock's Daisyworld and Thomas Ray's Tierra.
The World3 model is a system dynamics model for computer simulation of interactions between population, industrial growth, food production and limits in the ecosystems of the earth.

### Molecular dynamics

dynamicsMDmolecular dynamic
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computer simulation method for analyzing the physical movements of atoms and molecules.

### Mathematical model

mathematical modelingmodelmathematical models
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

### Computational fluid dynamics

CFDcomputational fluid dynamics (CFD)CFD analysis

Roadway noise began to be measured in a widespread manner in the 1960s, when computer modeling of this phenomenon was perfected.

### DSSAM Model

DSSAM
The DSSAM Model (Dynamic Stream Simulation and Assessment Model) is a computer simulation developed for the Truckee River to analyze water quality impacts from land use and wastewater management decisions in the Truckee River Basin.

### Closed-form expression

closed formclosed-formanalytical solution
It can be used to explore and gain new insights into new technology and to estimate the performance of systems too complex for analytical solutions.
Equations or systems too complex for closed-form or analytic solutions can often be analysed by mathematical modelling and computer simulation.

### Emulator

emulationemulatedemulate
Purists continue to insist on this distinction, but currently the term "emulation" often means the complete imitation of a machine executing binary code while "simulation" often refers to computer simulation, where a computer program is used to simulate an abstract model.

### Genetic drift

driftrandom genetic driftrandom drift
On the other hand, computer simulations are usually easier to perform using the Wright–Fisher model, because fewer time steps need to be calculated.

### Computer

computerscomputer systemdigital computer
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
Supercomputers usually see usage in large-scale simulation, graphics rendering, and cryptography applications, as well as with other so-called "embarrassingly parallel" tasks.