Computing

computer technologycomputing technologyapplied computingcomputationalcomputercomputetechnologycomputationcomputedComputer Studies
Computing is any activity that uses computers to manage, process, and communicate information.wikipedia
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Association for Computing Machinery

ACMAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)ACM Press
The ACM Computing Curricula 2005 defined "computing" as follows:
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.

Computer hardware

hardwarepersonal computer hardwaredevice
It includes development of both hardware and software.
A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system, although other systems exist with only hardware components.

Computer science

computer scientistcomputer sciencescomputer scientists
Major computing disciplines include computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems, and information technology.
During the 1940s, as new and more powerful computing machines such as the Atanasoff–Berry computer and ENIAC were developed, the term computer came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors.

History of computing hardware

History of computer hardwarehistory of computerscomputer history
The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without the aid of tables.
The Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, performed astronomical calculations representing the state of the art in computing.

Digital Revolution

computer revolutioncomputerizationThird Industrial Revolution
The MOSFET made it possible to build high-density integrated circuit chips, leading to what is known as the computer revolution or microcomputer revolution.
Implicitly, the term also refers to the sweeping changes brought about by digital computing and communication technology during (and after) the latter half of the 20th century.

Integrated circuit

integrated circuitsmicrochipchip
The MOSFET made it possible to build high-density integrated circuit chips, leading to what is known as the computer revolution or microcomputer revolution.
The application of MOS LSI chips to computing was the basis for the first microprocessors, as engineers began recognizing that a complete computer processor could be contained on a single MOS LSI chip.

Instruction set architecture

instruction setinstructionsinstruction
Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software.
The binary compatibility that they provide make ISAs one of the most fundamental abstractions in computing.

Device driver

driverdriversdevice drivers
System software includes operating systems, utility software, device drivers, window systems, and firmware.
In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.

Windowing system

window systemwindowingwindowing environment
System software includes operating systems, utility software, device drivers, window systems, and firmware.
In computing, a windowing system (or window system) is software that manages separately different parts of display screens.

Firmware

BadUSBflashingflash
System software includes operating systems, utility software, device drivers, window systems, and firmware.
In computing, firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware.

Computer programming

programmingcodingprogrammable
The term computer programmer can refer to a specialist in one area of computer programming or to a generalist who writes code for many kinds of software. Other duties may include scripting or light programming, project management for systems-related projects, supervising or training computer operators, and being the consultant for computer problems beyond the knowledge of technical support staff.
Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.

MOSFET

metal-oxide-semiconductorMOSMOS integrated circuit
The metal–oxide–silicon field-effect transistor (MOSFET, or MOS transistor) was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959.
The application of MOS LSI chips to computing was the basis for the first microprocessors, as engineers began recognizing that a complete computer processor could be contained on a single MOS LSI chip.

Microprocessor

microprocessorsprocessorprocessors
Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software aspects of computing, from the design of individual microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design.
The application of MOS LSI chips to computing was the basis for the first microprocessors, as engineers began recognizing that a complete computer processor could be contained on several MOS LSI chips.

DNA computing

molecular computerDNA computermolecular computing
DNA-based computing and quantum computing are areas of active research in both hardware and software (such as the development of quantum algorithms).
DNA computing is a branch of computing which uses DNA, biochemistry, and molecular biology hardware, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies.

Computer

computerscomputer systemdigital computer
The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without the aid of tables. Computing is any activity that uses computers to manage, process, and communicate information.
During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation.

Information technology

ITinformation technologiescomputer industry
Major computing disciplines include computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems, and information technology.
The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's first programmable computer, and by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine.

Project management

projectproject developmentproject manager
Other duties may include scripting or light programming, project management for systems-related projects, supervising or training computer operators, and being the consultant for computer problems beyond the knowledge of technical support staff.
Project managers can have the responsibility of the planning, execution, controlling, and closing of any project typically relating to the construction industry, engineering, architecture, computing, and telecommunications.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
Computer science or computing science (abbreviated CS or Comp Sci) is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications.

Creative computing

Hongji YangInternational Journal of Creative Computing
Creative computing covers the interdisciplinary area at the cross-over of the creative arts and computing.

Computer engineering

computer engineerComputerengineering
Major computing disciplines include computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems, and information technology.

Software engineering

software engineersoftware engineerssoftware
Major computing disciplines include computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems, and information technology.

Information system

information systemscomputer information systemssystems
Major computing disciplines include computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems, and information technology.

Synonym

synonymssyn.synonymous
The term "computing" is also synonymous with counting and calculating.