A report on Computing

Computer simulation, one of the main cross-computing methodologies.
ENIAC, the first programmable general-purpose electronic digital computer

Any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery.

- Computing
Computer simulation, one of the main cross-computing methodologies.

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A human computer, with microscope and calculator, 1952

Computer

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Digital electronic machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.

Digital electronic machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.

A human computer, with microscope and calculator, 1952
The Ishango bone, a bone tool dating back to prehistoric Africa.
The Chinese suanpan (算盘). The number represented on this abacus is 6,302,715,408.
The Antikythera mechanism, dating back to ancient Greece circa 150–100 BC, is an early analog computing device.
A slide rule.
A portion of Babbage's Difference engine.
Sir William Thomson's third tide-predicting machine design, 1879–81
Replica of Konrad Zuse's Z3, the first fully automatic, digital (electromechanical) computer.
Colossus, the first electronic digital programmable computing device, was used to break German ciphers during World War II. It is seen here in use at Bletchley Park in 1943.
ENIAC was the first electronic, Turing-complete device, and performed ballistics trajectory calculations for the United States Army.
A section of the Manchester Baby, the first electronic stored-program computer
Bipolar junction transistor (BJT)
MOSFET (MOS transistor), showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (pink).
Diagram showing how a particular MIPS architecture instruction would be decoded by the control system
Magnetic-core memory (using magnetic cores) was the computer memory of choice in the 1960s, until it was replaced by semiconductor memory (using MOS memory cells).
Hard disk drives are common storage devices used with computers.
Cray designed many supercomputers that used multiprocessing heavily.
Replica of the Manchester Baby, the world's first electronic stored-program computer, at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, England
A 1970s punched card containing one line from a Fortran program. The card reads: "Z(1) = Y + W(1)" and is labeled "PROJ039" for identification purposes.
The actual first computer bug, a moth found trapped on a relay of the Harvard Mark II computer
Visualization of a portion of the routes on the Internet

During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation.

Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".

Computer science

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Study of computation, automation, and information.

Study of computation, automation, and information.

Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".
Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm intended for processing on a computer.

During the 1940s, with the development of new and more powerful computing machines such as the Atanasoff–Berry computer and ENIAC, the term computer came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors.

Input/output

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In computing, input/output (I/O, or informally io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.

PDP-11 CPU board

Computer hardware

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Computer hardware includes the physical parts of a computer, such as the case, central processing unit (CPU), random access memory (RAM), monitor, mouse, keyboard, computer data storage, graphics card, sound card, speakers and motherboard.

Computer hardware includes the physical parts of a computer, such as the case, central processing unit (CPU), random access memory (RAM), monitor, mouse, keyboard, computer data storage, graphics card, sound card, speakers and motherboard.

PDP-11 CPU board
Von Neumann architecture scheme
Basic hardware components of a personal computer, including a monitor, a motherboard, a CPU, a RAM, two expansion cards, a power supply, an optical disc drive, a hard disk drive, a keyboard and a mouse
Inside a custom-built computer: power supply at the bottom has its own cooling fan
Computer motherboard
An IBM System z9 mainframe

A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system, although other systems exist with only hardware.

Software engineering

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Systematic engineering approach to software development.

Systematic engineering approach to software development.

Software engineering is considered one of major computing disciplines.

Modern DDR4 SDRAM module, usually found in desktop computers.

Computer memory

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Modern DDR4 SDRAM module, usually found in desktop computers.
Detail of the back of a section of ENIAC, showing vacuum tubes.
8GB microSDHC card on top of 8bytes of magnetic-core memory (1core is 1bit).
Various memory modules containing different types of DRAM (from top to bottom): DDR SDRAM, SDRAM, EDO DRAM, and FPM DRAM

In computing, memory is a device or system that is used to store information for immediate use in a computer or related computer hardware and digital electronic devices.

Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) integrated circuits in dual in-line packages. These packages have a transparent window that shows the die inside. The window is used to erase the memory by exposing the chip to ultraviolet light.

Integrated circuit

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Set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, usually silicon.

Set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, usually silicon.

Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) integrated circuits in dual in-line packages. These packages have a transparent window that shows the die inside. The window is used to erase the memory by exposing the chip to ultraviolet light.
Integrated circuit from an EPROM memory microchip showing the memory blocks, the supporting circuitry and the fine silver wires which connect the integrated circuit die to the legs of the packaging
Virtual detail of an integrated circuit through four layers of planarized copper interconnect, down to the polysilicon (pink), wells (greyish), and substrate (green)
Jack Kilby's original hybrid integrated circuit from 1958. This was the first integrated circuit, and was made from germanium.
Robert Noyce invented the first monolithic integrated circuit in 1959. The chip was made from silicon.
A-to-D converter IC in a DIP
The die from an Intel 8742, an 8-bit NMOS microcontroller that includes a CPU running at 12 MHz, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 bytes of EPROM, and I/O in the same chip
Rendering of a small standard cell with three metal layers (dielectric has been removed). The sand-colored structures are metal interconnect, with the vertical pillars being contacts, typically plugs of tungsten. The reddish structures are polysilicon gates, and the solid at the bottom is the crystalline silicon bulk.
Schematic structure of a CMOS chip, as built in the early 2000s. The graphic shows LDD-MISFET's on an SOI substrate with five metallization layers and solder bump for flip-chip bonding. It also shows the section for FEOL (front-end of line), BEOL (back-end of line) and first parts of back-end process.
A Soviet MSI nMOS chip made in 1977, part of a four-chip calculator set designed in 1970
Upper interconnect layers on an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor die

The application of MOS LSI chips to computing was the basis for the first microprocessors, as engineers began recognizing that a complete computer processor could be contained on a single MOS LSI chip.

This computer motherboard used in a personal computer is the result of computer engineering efforts.

Computer engineering

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Branch of electrical engineering that integrates several fields of computer science and electronic engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.

Branch of electrical engineering that integrates several fields of computer science and electronic engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.

This computer motherboard used in a personal computer is the result of computer engineering efforts.
The Difference Engine, the first mechanical computer.
ENIAC, the first electronic computer.
Source code written in the C programming language.
Windows 10, an example of an operating system.
An example of a computer CPU.
An example of a humanoid robot.
Examples of devices that use embedded systems.

Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software aspects of computing, from the design of individual microcontrollers, microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design.

Computing hardware is a platform for information processing.

History of computing hardware

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The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers.

The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers.

Computing hardware is a platform for information processing.
Parts from four early computers, 1962. From left to right: ENIAC board, EDVAC board, ORDVAC board, and BRLESC-I board, showing the trend toward miniaturization.
The Ishango bone is thought to be a Paleolithic tally stick.
Suanpan (the number represented on this abacus is 6,302,715,408)
A modern slide rule
View through the back of Pascal's calculator. Pascal invented his machine in 1642.
A set of John Napier's calculating tables from around 1680
Detail of an arithmometer built before 1851. The one-digit multiplier cursor (ivory top) is the leftmost cursor
IBM punched-card accounting machines, 1936
The Curta calculator could also do multiplication and division.
A portion of Babbage's Difference Engine
Trial model of a part of the Analytical Engine, built by Babbage, as displayed at the Science Museum, London
Torres Quevedo's 1920 electromechanical arithmometer, one of several designs based on Babbage. This prototype automatically performed arithmetic operations and used a typewriter to send commands and print its results.
Sir William Thomson's third tide-predicting machine design, 1879–81
A Mk. I Drift Sight. The lever just in front of the bomb aimer's fingertips sets the altitude, the wheels near his knuckles set the wind and airspeed.
Replica of Zuse's Z3, the first fully automatic, digital (electromechanical) computer
Atanasoff–Berry Computer replica at first floor of Durham Center, Iowa State University
Colossus was the first electronic digital programmable computing device, and was used to break German ciphers during World War II. It remained unknown, as a military secret, well into the 1970s
Wartime photo of Colossus No. 10
ENIAC was the first Turing-complete electronic device, and performed ballistics trajectory calculations for the United States Army.
Design of the von Neumann architecture, 1947
A section of the rebuilt Manchester Baby, the first electronic stored-program computer
EDSAC
EDVAC
Front panel of the IBM 650
Diagram of a 4×4 plane of magnetic core memory in an X/Y line coincident-current setup. X and Y are drive lines, S is sense, Z is inhibit. Arrows indicate the direction of current for writing.
A bipolar junction transistor
The University of Manchester Atlas in January 1963
The die from an Intel 8742, an 8-bit microcontroller that includes a CPU running at 12 MHz, RAM, EPROM, and I/O
Altair 8800

The Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, performed astronomical calculations representing the state of the art in computing.

Rings of time showing some important dates in Digital Revolution from 1968 to 2017

Digital Revolution

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Shift from mechanical and analogue electronic technology to digital electronics which began in the later half of the 20th century, with the adoption and proliferation of digital computers and digital record-keeping, that continues to the present day.

Shift from mechanical and analogue electronic technology to digital electronics which began in the later half of the 20th century, with the adoption and proliferation of digital computers and digital record-keeping, that continues to the present day.

Rings of time showing some important dates in Digital Revolution from 1968 to 2017
A visualization of the various routes through a portion of the Internet (created via The Opte Project).
Analog to digital transition 1986 - 2014
A university computer lab containing many desktop PCs

Implicitly, the term also refers to the sweeping changes brought about by digital computing and communication technologies during this period.