Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company

The Tabulating Machine CompanyComputing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR)Tabulating Machine CompanyCTRDayton Scale CompanyHollerithtime recording clock
The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) was a holding company of manufacturers of record-keeping and measuring systems subsequently known as IBM.wikipedia
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Charles Ranlett Flint

Charles R. FlintCharles Flint
In 1911 financier and noted trust organizer, "Father of Trusts", Charles R. Flint amalgamated (via stock acquisition) four companies: Bundy Manufacturing Company, International Time Recording Company, The Tabulating Machine Company, and the Computing Scale Company of America; creating a fifth company - The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company.
Charles Ranlett Flint (January 24, 1850 – February 26, 1934) was the founder of the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company which later became IBM.

Endicott, New York

EndicottEndicott, NYHenry B. Endicott
CTR was initially located in Endicott, New York The amalgamated companies had 1,300 employees and manufactured a wide range of products, including employee time-keeping systems, weighing scales, automatic meat slicers, and punched card equipment.
The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) was founded in Endicott on June 16, 1911, via the consolidation of the International Time Recording Company (ITR), The Tabulating Machine Company, Computing Scale Company, and Bundy Time Recording.

Unit record equipment

Hollerithpunched card machinestabulating equipment
CTR was initially located in Endicott, New York The amalgamated companies had 1,300 employees and manufactured a wide range of products, including employee time-keeping systems, weighing scales, automatic meat slicers, and punched card equipment. Herman Hollerith initially did business under his own name, as The Hollerith Electric Tabulating System, specializing in punched card data processing equipment.
The company he founded in 1896, the Tabulating Machine Company (TMC), was one of four companies that in 1911 were amalgamated in the forming of a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, later renamed IBM.

George Winthrop Fairchild

George W. Fairchild
In 1900 George W. Fairchild, an investor and director of the Bundy Manufacturing Company, led the formation in Jersey City, New Jersey, of the International Time Recording Company (ITR) which consolidated the time recording business of Bundy with the Willard & Frick Manufacturing Co. In 1901, the company was re-incorporated in Binghamton, New York.
Prior to joining congress, he was a businessman and investor, best known as the chairman from 1915 to 1924 of the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company which later became IBM.

Herman Hollerith

HollerithHollerith, Herman Hollerith, Herman
Herman Hollerith initially did business under his own name, as The Hollerith Electric Tabulating System, specializing in punched card data processing equipment.
He was the founder of the Tabulating Machine Company that was amalgamated (via stock acquisition) in 1911 with three other companies to form a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company later renamed IBM.

Bundy Manufacturing Company

Willard Bundy
In 1911 financier and noted trust organizer, "Father of Trusts", Charles R. Flint amalgamated (via stock acquisition) four companies: Bundy Manufacturing Company, International Time Recording Company, The Tabulating Machine Company, and the Computing Scale Company of America; creating a fifth company - The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company.
1900: The International Time Recording Company of New Jersey is formed, a merger of the time recording business of Bundy Mfg., its subsidiary the Standard Time Stamp Company, and Willard and Frick Mfg.

Time clock

clocking inpunch clocktime-clocks
CTR was initially located in Endicott, New York The amalgamated companies had 1,300 employees and manufactured a wide range of products, including employee time-keeping systems, weighing scales, automatic meat slicers, and punched card equipment. The first time clock was invented on November 20, 1888, by Willard Bundy, a jeweler in Auburn, New York.
In 1900, the time recording business of Bundy Manufacturing, along with two other time equipment businesses, was consolidated into the International Time Recording Company (ITR).

Punched card

punched cardspunch cardpunch cards
Herman Hollerith initially did business under his own name, as The Hollerith Electric Tabulating System, specializing in punched card data processing equipment.
Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company (1896) which was one of four companies that were amalgamated (via stock acquisition) to form a fifth company, Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) (1911), later renamed International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) (1924).

Think (IBM)

THINKGuide To ThimkingIBM's ''Think'' magazine
Since 1907 or earlier ITR had published a magazine, Time, for employees and customers; in 1935 IBM renamed the magazine Think.
In 1914, Watson brought the slogan with him to the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and its subsidiaries, all of which later became IBM.

History of IBM

IBMunbundling of software and servicesantitrust lawsuit
History of IBM
In 1911 the company that leased Unit record equipment, especially Hollerith punched cards and card readers to government bureaus and insurance agencies, became the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR).

NCR Corporation

NCRNational Cash RegisterNational Cash Register Company
Thomas J. Watson Sr., along with 29 other NCR officials, had been convicted in 1913 of various antitrust violations for their roles in a widespread National Cash Register scheme to run used cash register retailers out of business (see NCR Corporation § Expansion).
"THINK" later became a widely known symbol of IBM, which was created by Watson after he joined the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR).

IBM

International Business MachinesIBM CorporationInternational Business Machines Corporation
The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) was a holding company of manufacturers of record-keeping and measuring systems subsequently known as IBM.
The company began in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924.

Thomas J. Watson

Thomas J. Watson, Sr.Thomas WatsonThomas J. Watson Sr.
Thomas J. Watson Sr., along with 29 other NCR officials, had been convicted in 1913 of various antitrust violations for their roles in a widespread National Cash Register scheme to run used cash register retailers out of business (see NCR Corporation § Expansion).
Charles Ranlett Flint who had engineered the amalgamation (via stock acquisition) forming the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) found it difficult to manage the five companies.

James W. Bryce

Watson recognized the importance of sound R&D, appointing James W. Bryce in 1922 to manage this (moving him from its Time Recording Division, which he had joined in 1915).
He took a position at the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (later known as IBM) in 1917 as supervising engineer of the division that developed time recording machines.

Holding company

holdingholding companiesparent company
The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) was a holding company of manufacturers of record-keeping and measuring systems subsequently known as IBM.

Trust (business)

trusttrustspowder trust
In 1911 financier and noted trust organizer, "Father of Trusts", Charles R. Flint amalgamated (via stock acquisition) four companies: Bundy Manufacturing Company, International Time Recording Company, The Tabulating Machine Company, and the Computing Scale Company of America; creating a fifth company - The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company.

Consolidation (business)

amalgamatedconsolidationamalgamation
In 1911 financier and noted trust organizer, "Father of Trusts", Charles R. Flint amalgamated (via stock acquisition) four companies: Bundy Manufacturing Company, International Time Recording Company, The Tabulating Machine Company, and the Computing Scale Company of America; creating a fifth company - The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company.

Weighing scale

scalesscalebalance
CTR was initially located in Endicott, New York The amalgamated companies had 1,300 employees and manufactured a wide range of products, including employee time-keeping systems, weighing scales, automatic meat slicers, and punched card equipment.

Meat slicer

deli slicerfood slicerautomatic meat slicers
CTR was initially located in Endicott, New York The amalgamated companies had 1,300 employees and manufactured a wide range of products, including employee time-keeping systems, weighing scales, automatic meat slicers, and punched card equipment.

Auburn, New York

AuburnAuburn, NYAuburn, Cayuga County
The first time clock was invented on November 20, 1888, by Willard Bundy, a jeweler in Auburn, New York.

Rochester, New York

RochesterRochester, NYCity of Rochester
In 1894, J. L. Willard and F. A. Frick of Rochester, New York, formed the Willard & Frick Manufacturing Company as the first time card recorder company in the world.

Timesheet

time cardtime trackingtime sheet
In 1894, J. L. Willard and F. A. Frick of Rochester, New York, formed the Willard & Frick Manufacturing Company as the first time card recorder company in the world.

United States Census Bureau

U.S. Census BureauUS Census BureauCensus Bureau
Hollerith's series of patents on tabulating machine technology, first applied for in 1884, drew on his work at the U.S. Census Bureau from 1879 to 82. Hollerith was initially trying to reduce the time and complexity needed to tabulate the 1890 Census.

1900 United States Census

1900 census1900Population
In 1896 the Tabulating Machine Company leased some machines to a railway company but quickly focused on the challenges of the largest statistical endeavor of its day – the 1900 US Census.

Hobart Corporation

HobartHOBART GmbHHobart Manufacturing
- Computing Scale interested Watson the least and the largest element of this (Dayton Scale) was eventually sold off in 1933, to Hobart Manufacturing.