Condensation forming in the low pressure zone above the wing of an aircraft due to adiabatic expansion
Condensation on a window on a cold day.
Condensation on the outside of a window, due to it being in front of the sea which regularly produces moist sea spray.
In cloud chambers a liquid (sometimes water, but usually isopropanol) condenses upon contact with a particle of radiation thus producing an effect similar to contrails
Condensation on a window during a rain shower.

Reverse of vaporization.

- Condensation

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Dew point

Temperature to which air must be cooled to become saturated with water vapor, assuming constant air pressure and water content.

This graph shows the maximum percentage, by mass, of water vapor that air at sea-level pressure across a range of temperatures can contain. For a lower ambient pressure, a curve has to be drawn above the current curve. A higher ambient pressure yields a curve under the current curve.
Graph of the dependence of the dew point upon air temperature for several levels of relative humidity.

When cooled below the dew point, moisture capacity is reduced and airborne water vapor will condense to form liquid water known as dew.


An ampule of nitrogen oxide vapor: brown nitrogen dioxide and colourless dinitrogen tetroxide, in equilibrium
The vapor-liquid critical point in a pressure-temperature phase diagram is at the high-temperature extreme of the liquid–gas phase boundary. (The dotted green line gives the anomalous behaviour of water.)
Liquid–vapor equilibrium
If the vapor pressure exceeds the equilibrium value, it becomes supersaturated and condenses on any available nucleation sites e. g. particles of dust. This principle is used in cloud chambers, where particles of radiation are visualized because they nucleate formation of water droplets.
Invisible water vapor condenses to form visible water droplets called mist

In physics, a vapor (American English) or vapour (British English and Canadian English; see spelling differences) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature, which means that the vapor can be condensed to a liquid by increasing the pressure on it without reducing the temperature.


Schematic of a simple distillation setup.
Distillation equipment used by the 3rd century alchemist Zosimos of Panopolis, from the Byzantine Greek manuscript Parisinus graces.
Hieronymus Brunschwig's Liber de arte Distillandi de Compositis (Strassburg, 1512) Science History Institute
A retort
Old Ukrainian vodka still
Simple liqueur distillation in East Timor
A batch still showing the separation of A and B.
Dimethyl sulfoxide usually boils at 189°C. Under a vacuum, it distills off into the receiver at only 70°C.
Perkin triangle distillation setup
 | Stirrer bar/anti-bumping granules
 | Still pot
 | Fractionating column
 | Thermometer/Boiling point temperature
 | Teflon tap 1
 | Cold finger
 | Cooling water out
 | Cooling water in
 | Teflon tap 2
 | Vacuum/gas inlet
 | Teflon tap 3
 | Still receiver
Short path vacuum distillation apparatus with vertical condenser (cold finger), to minimize the distillation path;
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 | Still pot with stirrer bar/anti-bumping granules
 | Cold finger – bent to direct condensate
 | Cooling water out
 | cooling water in
 | Vacuum/gas inlet
 | Distillate flask/distillate.
Typical industrial distillation towers
Diagram of a typical industrial distillation tower
Section of an industrial distillation tower showing detail of trays with bubble caps
Large-scale, industrial vacuum distillation column

Distillation, or classical distillation, is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by using selective boiling and condensation.

Cloud condensation nuclei

Cloud condensation nuclei (CCNs), also known as cloud seeds, are small particles typically 0.2 µm, or 1/100 the size of a cloud droplet on which water vapor condenses.

Aerosol pollution over northern India and Bangladesh (Satellite image by NASA)
Phytoplankton bloom in the North Sea and the Skagerrak – NASA

Water requires a non-gaseous surface to make the transition from a vapor to a liquid; this process is called condensation.

Condenser (heat transfer)

The condenser coil of a refrigerator
Condenser unit for central air conditioning for a typical house

In systems involving heat transfer, a condenser is a heat exchanger used to condense a gaseous substance into a liquid state through cooling.

Atom cluster

Atom cluster is an ensemble of bound atoms or molecules that is intermediate in size between a simple molecule and a nanoparticle; that is, up to a few nanometers (nm) in diameter.

Buckminsterfullerene (formula: C60) is an atomic cluster.
Structure of the Bi82+ cluster in [Bi8](GaCl4)2.
Portion of lattice of [Te6](O3SCF3)2. The intra- and inter-triangle Te-Te distances are 2.70 and 3.06 Å, respectively.
structure of Cp*10Al50, revealing a core of aluminium sheathed in ten pentamethylcyclopentadienyl ligands.

Clusters may play an important role in phase transitions such as precipitation from solutions, condensation and evaporation of liquids and solids, freezing and melting, and adsorbtion to other materials.

Water cycle

Biogeochemical cycle that describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.

Time-mean precipitation and evaporation as a function of latitude as simulated by an aqua-planet version of an atmospheric GCM (GFDL's AM2.1) with a homogeneous “slab-ocean” lower boundary (saturated surface with small heat capacity), forced by annual mean insolation.
Global map of annual mean evaporation minus precipitation by latitude-longitude
Relationship between impervious surfaces and surface runoff
Diagram of the water cycle
Natural water cycle

The water moves from one reservoir to another, such as from river to ocean, or from the ocean to the atmosphere, by the physical processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff, and subsurface flow.

Drop (liquid)

Small column of liquid, bounded completely or almost completely by free surfaces.

Water drops on a leaf
Water drops falling from a tap.
Rain water flux from a canopy. Among the forces that govern drop formation: surface tension, cohesion, Van der Waals force, Plateau–Rayleigh instability.
Raindrops in a plant.
Drop of water bouncing on a water surface subject to vibrations
The pendant drop test illustrated.
The capillary length L_c against radii of a droplet
Blue dye being dropped in a saucer of milk.
Impact of a drop of water.
Backjet from drop impact.
A drop of water hitting a metal surface/ crown formation due to splashing of droplet.
A drop of water hitting a wet metal surface and ejecting more droplets, which become water globules and skim across the surface of the water.
A drop of water on a leaf / Hydrophobic effect/ Partial Wetting.
A triple backjet after impact.
Photo of a raindrop on a fern frond.
Detaching drop.
Water droplets forming out of a shower head.
A drop of water on an Asteraceae
Droplets of water refracting a small flower.
A raindrop on a leaf
Water droplets on glass.
Fountain water droplets as seen in very short exposure
Rain droplets on Rose plant leaf

Drops may also be formed by the condensation of a vapor or by atomization of a larger mass of solid.

Heat transfer

Discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy between physical systems.

Simulation of thermal convection in the Earth's mantle. Colors span from red and green to blue with decreasing temperatures. A hot, less-dense lower boundary layer sends plumes of hot material upwards, and cold material from the top moves downwards.
Earth's longwave thermal radiation intensity, from clouds, atmosphere and surface.
The four fundamental modes of heat transfer illustrated with a campfire
Red-hot iron object, transferring heat to the surrounding environment through thermal radiation
Lightning is a highly visible form of energy transfer and is an example of plasma present at Earth's surface. Typically, lightning discharges 30,000 amperes at up to 100 million volts, and emits light, radio waves, X-rays and even gamma rays. Plasma temperatures in lightning can approach 28,000 kelvins (27,726.85 °C) (49,940.33 °F) and electron densities may exceed 1024 m−3.
Nucleate boiling of water.
Ice melting
Heat exposure as part of a fire test for firestop products
Schematic flow of energy in a heat engine.
An example application in climate engineering includes the creation of Biochar through the pyrolysis process. Thus, storing greenhouse gases in carbon reduces the radiative forcing capacity in the atmosphere, causing more long-wave (infrared) radiation out to Space.
A representation of the exchanges of energy between the source (the Sun), the Earth's surface, the Earth's atmosphere, and the ultimate sink outer space. The ability of the atmosphere to capture and recycle energy emitted by the Earth surface is the defining characteristic of the greenhouse effect.
A traditional air cooler in Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Condensation occurs when a vapor is cooled and changes its phase to a liquid.

Damp (structural)

Detail showing some of the causes of damp penetration
Mould growth caused by condensation in dead air pocket behind books
Moderate rising damp on an internal wall
Effect of placing a porous brick in a shallow tray of water
Damp Houses – British Medical Journal – May 25th 1872
"Next we look, but in vain, for any signs of a damp proof course, or for any gratings to show that ventilation to the ground floor joists has not been forgotten. The results of the first two defects are visible enough in the house as it now exists, in the damp and green stains which are everywhere to be seen from the level of the ground to some two or three feet up the walls." Helps To Health, Sir Henry Burdett (1885), p. 138.
Vitrified stone-ware damp-course
Gaps between damp course for damp to rise in jerry-built house - Helps To Health, Sir Henry Burdett (1885), page 124
A wall affected by rising damp
An example of a damp proof course of slate in a brick wall intended to prevent rising damp
Damp-proofing cream leaking from injection holes. This can make it difficult to ascertain whether sufficient cream has remained in the holes for treatment to be successful.
A packet of damp-proofing rods
Damp-proofing rods installed along a mortar course to treat rising damp by forming a damp-proof course (DPC)
Porous tubes used to treat rising damp are visible on the outside of this Victorian house.
Plaster removed from a wall as part of a rising damp treatment. The wall was replastered using a sand-cement render.
Application of a sand:cement render to a wall as part of a rising damp treatment

Structural dampness is the presence of unwanted moisture in the structure of a building, either the result of intrusion from outside or condensation from within the structure.