# Condensed matter physics

**condensed matterCondensed matter theorycondensed-matter physicscondensed matter physicisttheoretical condensed matter physicscondensed phasecondensed-mattercondensedHistory of condensed matter physicsCondensed-matter physicist**

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.wikipedia

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### Solid

**solidsssolid state**

The most familiar examples of condensed phases are solids and liquids, which arise from the electromagnetic forces between atoms.

The branch of physics that deals with solids is called solid-state physics, and is the main branch of condensed matter physics (which also includes liquids).

### Liquid

**liquidsliquid phaseliquid state**

The most familiar examples of condensed phases are solids and liquids, which arise from the electromagnetic forces between atoms.

Therefore, liquid and solid are both termed condensed matter.

### Yakov Frenkel

**Frenkel' Ya.I.**

For example, in the introduction to his 1947 book Kinetic Theory of Liquids, Yakov Frenkel proposed that "The kinetic theory of liquids must accordingly be developed as a generalization and extension of the kinetic theory of solid bodies. As a matter of fact, it would be more correct to unify them under the title of 'condensed bodies'".

Yakov Il'ich Frenkel (10 February 1894 – 23 January 1952) was a Soviet physicist renowned for his works in the field of condensed matter physics.

### Quantum mechanics

**quantum physicsquantum mechanicalquantum theory**

In particular, they include the laws of quantum mechanics, electromagnetism and statistical mechanics.

It underlies the mathematical framework of many fields of physics and chemistry, including condensed matter physics, solid-state physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, computational physics, computational chemistry, quantum chemistry, particle physics, nuclear chemistry, and nuclear physics.

### Atomic physics

**atomicatomic physicistatomic scientist**

The field overlaps with chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, and relates closely to atomic physics and biophysics.

It is not concerned with the formation of molecules (although much of the physics is identical), nor does it examine atoms in a solid state as condensed matter.

### Spin (physics)

**spinnuclear spinspins**

More exotic condensed phases include the superconducting phase exhibited by certain materials at low temperature, the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of spins on crystal lattices of atoms, and the Bose–Einstein condensate found in ultracold atomic systems.

The study of the behavior of such "spin models" is a thriving area of research in condensed matter physics.

### Philip Warren Anderson

**Philip W. AndersonPhilip AndersonP. W. Anderson**

According to physicist Philip Warren Anderson, the term was coined by him and Volker Heine, when they changed the name of their group at the Cavendish Laboratories, Cambridge from Solid state theory to Theory of Condensed Matter in 1967, as they felt it did not exclude their interests in the study of liquids, nuclear matter, and so on.

From 1949 to 1984 he was employed by Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, where he worked on a wide variety of problems in condensed matter physics.

### Materials science

**material sciencematerials engineeringmaterials scientist**

The field overlaps with chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, and relates closely to atomic physics and biophysics.

This field also includes new areas of research such as superconducting materials, spintronics, metamaterials, etc. The study of these materials involves knowledge of materials science and solid-state physics or condensed matter physics.

### Physics

**physicistphysicalphysicists**

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.

Contemporary research in physics can be broadly divided into nuclear and particle physics; condensed matter physics; atomic, molecular, and optical physics; astrophysics; and applied physics.

### Theoretical physics

**theoretical physicisttheoreticaltheoretical physicists**

The study of condensed matter physics involves measuring various material properties via experimental probes along with using methods of theoretical physics to develop mathematical models that help in understanding physical behavior.

### Cooper pair

**Cooper pairsCooper pairingCooper electron pair**

Eventually in 1965, John Bardeen, Leon Cooper and John Schrieffer developed the so-called BCS theory of superconductivity, based on the discovery that arbitrarily small attraction between two electrons of opposite spin mediated by phonons in the lattice can give rise to a bound state called a Cooper pair.

In condensed matter physics, a Cooper pair or BCS pair is a pair of electrons (or other fermions) bound together at low temperatures in a certain manner first described in 1956 by American physicist Leon Cooper.

### Quasiparticle

**quasiparticlesquasi-particlecollective excitation**

These included recognition of collective excitation modes of solids and the important notion of a quasiparticle.

The quasiparticle concept is most important in condensed matter physics since it is one of the few known ways of simplifying the quantum mechanical many-body problem.

### Leo Kadanoff

**Leo P. KadanoffL.P. KadanoffProf. Leo Kadanoff**

Leo Kadanoff, Benjamin Widom and Michael Fisher developed the ideas of critical exponents and widom scaling.

He contributed to the fields of statistical physics, chaos theory, and theoretical condensed matter physics.

### Crystallography

**crystallographercrystallographiccrystallographically**

A variety of topics in physics such as crystallography, metallurgy, elasticity, magnetism, etc., were treated as distinct areas until the 1940s, when they were grouped together as solid state physics.

### Laughlin wavefunction

**Laughlin**

Laughlin, in 1983, realized that this was a consequence of quasiparticle interaction in the Hall states and formulated a variational method solution, named the Laughlin wavefunction.

In condensed matter physics, the Laughlin wavefunction is an ansatz, proposed by Robert Laughlin for the ground state of a two-dimensional electron gas placed in a uniform background magnetic field in the presence of a uniform jellium background when the filling factor (Quantum Hall effect) of the lowest Landau level is \nu=1/n where n is an odd positive integer.

### Matter

**corporealsubstancematerial**

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.

The term "matter" is used throughout physics in a bewildering variety of contexts: for example, one refers to "condensed matter physics", "elementary matter", "partonic" matter, "dark" matter, "anti"-matter, "strange" matter, and "nuclear" matter.

### Quantum field theory

**quantum field theoriesquantum fieldquantum theory**

Theoretical models have also been developed to study the physics of phase transitions, such as the Ginzburg–Landau theory, critical exponents and the use of mathematical methods of quantum field theory and the renormalization group. Goldstone's theorem in quantum field theory states that in a system with broken continuous symmetry, there may exist excitations with arbitrarily low energy, called the Goldstone bosons.

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is a theoretical framework that combines classical field theory, special relativity, and quantum mechanics (but notably not general relativity's description of gravity) and is used to construct physical models of subatomic particles (in particle physics) and quasiparticles (in condensed matter physics).

### Density functional theory

**DFTdensity-functional theorydensity functional**

These include models to study the electronic properties of solids, such as the Drude model, the band structure and the density functional theory.

Density functional theory (DFT) is a computational quantum mechanical modelling method used in physics, chemistry and materials science to investigate the electronic structure (or nuclear structure) (principally the ground state) of many-body systems, in particular atoms, molecules, and the condensed phases.

### Chemistry

**chemistchemicalApplied Chemistry**

The field overlaps with chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, and relates closely to atomic physics and biophysics.

### Renormalization group

**renormalization group equationrenormalization group flowExact renormalization group equation**

Theoretical models have also been developed to study the physics of phase transitions, such as the Ginzburg–Landau theory, critical exponents and the use of mathematical methods of quantum field theory and the renormalization group. These ideas were unified by Kenneth G. Wilson in 1972, under the formalism of the renormalization group in the context of quantum field theory.

It came from condensed matter physics: Leo P. Kadanoff's paper in 1966 proposed the "block-spin" renormalization group.

### Gauge theory

**gauge groupgauge theoriesgauge symmetry**

Modern theoretical studies involve the use of numerical computation of electronic structure and mathematical tools to understand phenomena such as high-temperature superconductivity, topological phases, and gauge symmetries.

Today, gauge theories are useful in condensed matter, nuclear and high energy physics among other subfields.

### Chemist

**chemistsresearch chemistchemical**

One of the first studies of condensed states of matter was by English chemist Humphry Davy, in the first decades of the nineteenth century.

### Goldstone boson

**Goldstone's theoremNambu–Goldstone bosonGoldstone theorem**

Goldstone's theorem in quantum field theory states that in a system with broken continuous symmetry, there may exist excitations with arbitrarily low energy, called the Goldstone bosons.

In particle and condensed matter physics, Goldstone bosons or Nambu–Goldstone bosons (NGBs) are bosons that appear necessarily in models exhibiting spontaneous breakdown of continuous symmetries.

### Volker Heine

According to physicist Philip Warren Anderson, the term was coined by him and Volker Heine, when they changed the name of their group at the Cavendish Laboratories, Cambridge from Solid state theory to Theory of Condensed Matter in 1967, as they felt it did not exclude their interests in the study of liquids, nuclear matter, and so on.

### Lattice model (physics)

**latticelattice modelslattice model**

In 1912, The structure of crystalline solids was studied by Max von Laue and Paul Knipping, when they observed the X-ray diffraction pattern of crystals, and concluded that crystals get their structure from periodic lattices of atoms.

Lattice models originally occurred in the context of condensed matter physics, where the atoms of a crystal automatically form a lattice.