Conditioned taste aversion

taste aversionstimulus generalizationaversion learningavoid foods that have tasted unpleasantConditioned food aversiongeneralization
Conditioned taste aversion occurs when an animal associates the taste of a certain food with symptoms caused by a toxic, spoiled, or poisonous substance.wikipedia
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John Garcia (psychologist)

John GarciaDr. John Garcia
Studies on conditioned taste aversion which involved irradiating rats were conducted in the 1950s by Dr. John Garcia, leading to it sometimes being called the Garcia effect.
John Garcia (June 12, 1917 – October 12, 2012 ) was an American psychologist, most known for his research on taste aversion.

Classical conditioning

conditioningPavlovian conditioningPavlovian
It is an example of classical or "Pavlovian" conditioning.
It was also thought that repeated pairings are necessary for conditioning to emerge, but many CRs can be learned with a single trial, especially in fear conditioning and taste aversion learning.

Taste

sourbittergustatory
Conditioned taste aversion occurs when an animal associates the taste of a certain food with symptoms caused by a toxic, spoiled, or poisonous substance.

Toxicity

toxicnon-toxicnontoxic
Conditioned taste aversion occurs when an animal associates the taste of a certain food with symptoms caused by a toxic, spoiled, or poisonous substance.

Poison

poisonouspoisonstoxic substances
Conditioned taste aversion occurs when an animal associates the taste of a certain food with symptoms caused by a toxic, spoiled, or poisonous substance.

Nausea

nauseousnauseatedvomiting
Generally, taste aversion is developed after ingestion of food that causes nausea, sickness, or vomiting.

Disease

morbidityillnessdiseases
Generally, taste aversion is developed after ingestion of food that causes nausea, sickness, or vomiting.

Adaptation

adaptedadaptationsadaptive
The ability to develop a taste aversion is considered an adaptive trait or survival mechanism that trains the body to avoid poisonous substances (e.g., poisonous berries) before they can cause harm.

Béarnaise sauce

béarnaisebearnaise saucebearnaise
Under these circumstances, conditioned taste aversion is sometimes known as the "Sauce-Bearnaise Syndrome", a term coined by Seligman and Hager.

Martin Seligman

Martin E.P. SeligmanSeligmanMartin E. P. Seligman
Under these circumstances, conditioned taste aversion is sometimes known as the "Sauce-Bearnaise Syndrome", a term coined by Seligman and Hager.

Ivan Pavlov

PavlovIvan Petrovich PavlovPavlovian
The experiments of Ivan Pavlov required several pairings of the neutral stimulus (e.g., a ringing bell) with the unconditioned stimulus (i.e., meat powder) before the neutral stimulus elicited a response.

Extinction (psychology)

extinctionextinction learningdisappearance
When humans eat bad food (e.g., spoiled meat) and get sick, they may find that food aversive until extinction occurs, if ever.

Sushi

makizushimakinarezushi
A human who eats sushi for the first time and who happens to come down with an unrelated stomach virus may still develop a taste aversion to sushi.

Chemotherapy

chemotherapeuticantineoplasticantineoplastic agent
Taste aversion is a common problem with chemotherapy patients, who become nauseated because of the drug therapy but associate the nausea with consumption of food.

Tangerine

tangerinesCitrus tangerinatangerine orange
For example, if one eats an orange and gets sick, one might also avoid eating tangerines and clementines because they look similar to oranges, and might lead one to think that they are also dangerous.

Clementine

clementinesCitrus clementinaClementine del Golfo di Taranto
For example, if one eats an orange and gets sick, one might also avoid eating tangerines and clementines because they look similar to oranges, and might lead one to think that they are also dangerous.

Amphetamine

Benzedrinespeedamphetamines
In further tests, the rats were tested with another sucrose solution but this time it was paired with a drug that gave positive, euphoric effects, such as amphetamine, cocaine, and morphine.

Cocaine

cokecocaine traffickingcrack
In further tests, the rats were tested with another sucrose solution but this time it was paired with a drug that gave positive, euphoric effects, such as amphetamine, cocaine, and morphine.

Morphine

morphiamorphine addictionmorphine sulfate
In further tests, the rats were tested with another sucrose solution but this time it was paired with a drug that gave positive, euphoric effects, such as amphetamine, cocaine, and morphine.

Gastrointestinal tract

intestinegastrointestinaldigestive tract
Because rats rely upon taste and pairing it with a reaction rather than relying on later responses that involve the gastrointestinal tract, taste avoidance is just as prevalent as taste aversion, though the two don't necessarily go hand in hand.

Pavlovian-instrumental transfer

transfer to the primary reinforcerspecific Pavlovian-instrumental transfer

Little Albert experiment

Little Albert
The study also provides an example of stimulus generalization.

Brand aversion

aversion
It is a distrust or a dislike of products from a particular brand on the basis of past experiences with that brand and its products, similar to taste aversion.