Conductivity (electrolytic)

conductivityelectrical conductivityelectrolytic conductivityionic conductivityconductivitiesECvolume conductivityelectric conductivityelectrically conducting solutionelectrolyte solutions with conductivity
Conductivity (or specific conductance) of an electrolyte solution is a measure of its ability to conduct electricity.wikipedia
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Electrolyte

electrolyteselectrolyticionic solution
Conductivity (or specific conductance) of an electrolyte solution is a measure of its ability to conduct electricity. The electrical conductivity of a solution of an electrolyte is measured by determining the resistance of the solution between two flat or cylindrical electrodes separated by a fixed distance.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

Electrical conductivity meter

EC meterconductivity meter
The resistance is measured by a conductivity meter.
An electrical conductivity meter (EC meter) measures the electrical conductivity in a solution.

Total dissolved solids

dissolved solidsTDSphosphorus
In many cases, conductivity is linked directly to the total dissolved solids (T.D.S.).
The two principal methods of measuring total dissolved solids are gravimetric analysis and conductivity.

Ultrapure water

Milli-Qultra-pure waterChemically pure water
Ultra-pure water could achieve 18 megohms or more.
Depending on the level of purity needed, detection of these contaminants can range from simple conductivity (electrolytic) readings to sophisticated instrumentation such as ion chromatography (IC), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

Debye–Falkenhagen effect

Debye Falkenhagen effect
The dependence on the frequency is usually small, but may become appreciable at very high frequencies, an effect known as the Debye–Falkenhagen effect.
The increase in the conductivity of an electrolyte solution when the applied voltage has a very high frequency is known as Debye–Falkenhagen effect.

Electrical resistance and conductance

resistanceelectrical resistanceconductance
The electrical conductivity of a solution of an electrolyte is measured by determining the resistance of the solution between two flat or cylindrical electrodes separated by a fixed distance.
For the case of electrolyte solutions, see the article: Conductivity (electrolytic).

Wien effect

effect
The Wien effect is the experimentally-observed increase in ionic mobility or conductivity of electrolytes at very high gradient of electrical potential.

Ionic atmosphere

Ionic Atmosphere is a concept employed in Debye-Hückel theory which explains the electrolytic conductivity behaviour of solutions.

Friedrich Kohlrausch (physicist)

Friedrich KohlrauschFriedrich Wilhelm Georg KohlrauschKohlrausch
Dilute solutions follow Kohlrausch's Laws of concentration dependence and additivity of ionic contributions.
* Kohlrausch bridge

Svante Arrhenius

Svante August ArrheniusArrheniusArrhenius, Svante August
His work focused on the conductivities of electrolytes.

Acid dissociation constant

p''K'' a pKapK a
For acids and bases the concentrations can be calculated when the value(s) of the acid dissociation constant(s) is(are) known.

Ion chromatography

ion exchange chromatographyion-exchange chromatographyIEX
Conductivity detectors are commonly used with ion chromatography.
The analytes of interest must then be detected by some means, typically by conductivity or UV/visible light absorbance.

Alfred Werner

WernerWerner, Alfred
The three Cl − are dissociated as free ions, which Werner confirmed by measuring the conductivity of the compound in aqueous solution, and also by chloride anion analysis using precipitation with silver nitrate.

Ion association

ion pairion-pairingion pairs
Whether this constitutes ion association is a moot point.
Much of the evidence is based on the interpretation of conductivity measurements.

International System of Units

SISI unitsSI unit
The SI unit of conductivity is Siemens per meter (S/m).

Siemens (unit)

siemensmicro-siemensmho
The SI unit of conductivity is Siemens per meter (S/m).

Environmental science

Environmental Sciencesenvironmental scientistenvironmental
Conductivity measurements are used routinely in many industrial and environmental applications as a fast, inexpensive and reliable way of measuring the ionic content in a solution.

Water purification

purificationwater purifierpurified
For example, the measurement of product conductivity is a typical way to monitor and continuously trend the performance of water purification systems.

Wheatstone bridge

Blumlein BridgebridgeWheatstone's Bridge
Conductivity is traditionally determined by connecting the electrolyte in a Wheatstone bridge.

Lars Onsager

OnsagerOnsager, Lars
Lars Onsager gave a theoretical explanation of Kohlrausch's law by extending Debye–Hückel theory.

Debye–Hückel equation

Debye–Hückel theoryDebye–HückelDebye–Hückel limiting law
Lars Onsager gave a theoretical explanation of Kohlrausch's law by extending Debye–Hückel theory.

Ohm

Ωohmsmegohm
The commonly used standard cell has a width of 1 cm, and thus for very pure water in equilibrium with air would have a resistance of about 10 6 ohm, known as a megohm.

Electrode

electrodescathodemicroelectrode
The electrical conductivity of a solution of an electrolyte is measured by determining the resistance of the solution between two flat or cylindrical electrodes separated by a fixed distance.