Condylarth

CondylarthracondylarthsCondylarthra indet.
Condylarthra is an informal group – previously considered an order – of extinct placental mammals, known primarily from the Paleocene and Eocene epochs.wikipedia
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Phenacodontidae

phenacodontidPhenacodontaphenacodontids
When Condylarthra was first described by, Phenacodontidae was the type and only family therein.
Phenacodontidae is an extinct family of large herbivorous mammals traditionally placed in the “wastebasket taxon” Condylarthra, which may instead represent early-stage perissodactyls.

Litopterna

litopternLitopterna indet.litopterns
Due to their primitive characteristics condylarths have been considered ancestral to several ungulate orders, including the living Artiodactyla, Cetacea, Perissodactyla, Hyracoidea, Sirenia, and Proboscidea, as well as the extinct Desmostylia, Embrithopoda, Litopterna, Notoungulata, and Astrapotheria.
Early forms are near the condylarths, to such an extent that the litopterns might be considered merely as surviving and diversely specialized condylarths.

Wastebasket taxon

wastebin taxonwastebin genuswastebasket taxa
It is now largely considered to be a wastebasket taxon, having served as a dumping ground for classifying ungulates which had not been clearly established as part of either Perissodactyla or Cetartiodactyla, being composed thus of several unrelated lineages.

Paleocene

PalaeoceneLate PaleocenePaleocene epoch
Condylarthra is an informal group – previously considered an order – of extinct placental mammals, known primarily from the Paleocene and Eocene epochs.
The most species-rich order of Paleocene mammals is Condylarthra, which is a wastebasket taxon for miscellaneous bunodont hoofed mammals.

Odd-toed ungulate

Perissodactylaperissodactylsperissodactyl
Due to their primitive characteristics condylarths have been considered ancestral to several ungulate orders, including the living Artiodactyla, Cetacea, Perissodactyla, Hyracoidea, Sirenia, and Proboscidea, as well as the extinct Desmostylia, Embrithopoda, Litopterna, Notoungulata, and Astrapotheria. It is now largely considered to be a wastebasket taxon, having served as a dumping ground for classifying ungulates which had not been clearly established as part of either Perissodactyla or Cetartiodactyla, being composed thus of several unrelated lineages. Among recent mammals, Paenungulata (hyraxes, elephants, and sea cows), Perissodactyla (horses, rhinoceroses, and tapirs), Artiodactyla (pigs, deer, antelope, cows, camels, hippos, and their relatives), Cetacea (whales), and Tubulidentata (aardvarks) are traditionally regarded as members of the Ungulata.

Ungulate

ungulatesunguligradeEuungulata
They are considered early, primitive ungulates.
Some scientists believed that modern ungulates are descended from an evolutionary grade of mammals known as the condylarths; the earliest known member of the group was the tiny Protungulatum, an ungulate that co-existed with the last of non-avian dinosaurs 66 million years ago; however, many authorities do not consider it a true placental, let alone an ungulate.

Aardvark

aardvarksOrycteropus aferant bear
Among recent mammals, Paenungulata (hyraxes, elephants, and sea cows), Perissodactyla (horses, rhinoceroses, and tapirs), Artiodactyla (pigs, deer, antelope, cows, camels, hippos, and their relatives), Cetacea (whales), and Tubulidentata (aardvarks) are traditionally regarded as members of the Ungulata.
Studies of the brain have shown the similarities with Condylarthra, and given the clade's status as a wastebasket taxon it may mean some species traditionally classified as "condylarths" are actually stem-aardvarks.

Meridiungulata

meridiungulatemeridiungulatesSouth American ungulate
Besides these, several extinct animals also belong to this group, especially the endemic South American orders of ungulates, (Meridiungulata).
Meridiungulata might have originated in South America from a North American condylarth ancestor, and they may be members of the clade Laurasiatheria, related to other ungulates, including artiodactyls and perissodactyls.

Oxyacodon

Oxyacodon is an extinct genus of condylarth of the family Periptychidae endemic to North America during the Early Paleocene living from 66—63.3 mya, existing for approximately.

Hyopsodontidae

hyopsodontidhyopsodontidshyopsodonts
Hyopsodontidae is an extinct family of unspecialized, primitive mammals from the order Condylarthra, living from the Paleocene to the Eocene in North America and Eurasia.

Arctocyonidae

arctocyonidsarctocyonidArctocyoninae
Arctocyonids were early defined as a family of creodonts (early predators), then reassigned to the condylarths (primitive plant-eaters, now understood as a wastebasket taxon).

Periptychidae

periptychid
The family is part of a radiation of early herbivorous and omnivorous mammals classified in the extinct order Condylarthra, which may be related to some or all living ungulates (hoofed mammals).

Ectoconus

Ectoconus was stoutly built, sheep-sized condylarth and had a small braincase, short, strong limbs and a heavy tail.

Mesonychid

MesonychiaMesonychidsmesonychian
In addition to meridiungulates and living ungulates, a condylarthran ancestry has been proposed for several other extinct groups of mammals, including Mesonychia and Dinocerata.
Mesonychians were long considered to be creodonts, but have now been removed from that order and placed in three families (Mesonychidae, Hapalodectidae, and Triisodontidae), either within their own order, Mesonychia, or within the order Condylarthra as part of the cohort or superorder Laurasiatheria.

Laurasiatheria

laurasiathereLaurasiatherescows
Paenungulates and tubulidentates are seen as afrotherians, and no longer seen as closely related to the laurasiatherian perissodactyls, artiodactyls, and cetaceans, implying that hooves were acquired independently (i.e. were analogous) by at least two different mammalian lineages, once in the Afrotheria and once in the Laurasiatheria.

Pleuraspidotherium

Pleuraspidotherium sp.
Pleuraspidotherium is an extinct genus of condylarth of the family Pleuraspidotheriidae, that lived during the Paleocene epoch in the modern Europe.

Tingamarra

Tingamarra porterorum
By the shape of the found tooth, Tingamarra was first classified as a condylarth.

Mammal

mammalsMammaliamammalian

Protungulatum

Protungulatum coombsi
It was initially assigned to the order condylarthra, a group of archaic "ungulates", that is now known to be polyphyletic.

Phenacodus

Phenacodus matthewiTrispondylus
The species of Mioclaenus were five-toed, bunodont Condylarthra, with a decided approximation to the perissodactyl type in the structure of the feet.

List of prehistoric mammals

Prehistoric mammalfossil mammalAdapisoricidae
Note: The "condylarths" are considered paraphyletic, i.e. a grouping of early ungulate-like mammals not necessarily closely related.

Order (biology)

ordersuborderorders
Condylarthra is an informal group – previously considered an order – of extinct placental mammals, known primarily from the Paleocene and Eocene epochs.

Placentalia

placentalplacental mammalplacental mammals
Condylarthra is an informal group – previously considered an order – of extinct placental mammals, known primarily from the Paleocene and Eocene epochs.

Eocene

Late EoceneMiddle EoceneEocene Epoch
Condylarthra is an informal group – previously considered an order – of extinct placental mammals, known primarily from the Paleocene and Eocene epochs.

Even-toed ungulate

artiodactyleven-toed ungulatesCetartiodactyla
It is now largely considered to be a wastebasket taxon, having served as a dumping ground for classifying ungulates which had not been clearly established as part of either Perissodactyla or Cetartiodactyla, being composed thus of several unrelated lineages.