Conformal antenna

Conformal arrayconformal to the device shape
In radio communication and avionics a conformal antenna or conformal array is a flat radio antenna which is designed to conform or follow some prescribed shape, for example a flat curving antenna which is mounted on or embedded in a curved surface.wikipedia
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Phased array

phased array radarphased-arrayphased-array radar
Conformal antennas are a form of phased array antenna.
A conformal antenna is a phased array in which the individual antennas, instead of being arranged in a flat plane, are mounted on a curved surface.

Radio

radio communicationradio communicationswireless
In radio communication and avionics a conformal antenna or conformal array is a flat radio antenna which is designed to conform or follow some prescribed shape, for example a flat curving antenna which is mounted on or embedded in a curved surface.

Avionics

aviation electronicsavionicaerospace
In radio communication and avionics a conformal antenna or conformal array is a flat radio antenna which is designed to conform or follow some prescribed shape, for example a flat curving antenna which is mounted on or embedded in a curved surface. Conformal antennas were developed in the 1980s as avionics antennas integrated into the curving skin of military aircraft to reduce aerodynamic drag, replacing conventional antenna designs which project from the aircraft surface.

Antenna (radio)

antennaantennasradio antenna
In radio communication and avionics a conformal antenna or conformal array is a flat radio antenna which is designed to conform or follow some prescribed shape, for example a flat curving antenna which is mounted on or embedded in a curved surface.

Drag (physics)

dragaerodynamic dragair resistance
Conformal antennas were developed in the 1980s as avionics antennas integrated into the curving skin of military aircraft to reduce aerodynamic drag, replacing conventional antenna designs which project from the aircraft surface.

Cell site

cell towercell towerscell phone tower
As the cost of the required processing technology comes down, they are being considered for use in civilian applications such as train antennas, car radio antennas, and cellular base station antennas, to save space and also to make the antenna less visually intrusive by integrating it into existing objects.

Dipole antenna

dipolehalf-wave dipoledipoles
They are composed of an array of many identical small flat antenna elements, such as dipole, horn, or patch antennas, covering the surface.

Horn antenna

hornhornsCorrugated Horn
They are composed of an array of many identical small flat antenna elements, such as dipole, horn, or patch antennas, covering the surface.

Patch antenna

Patchpatch elements
They are composed of an array of many identical small flat antenna elements, such as dipole, horn, or patch antennas, covering the surface.

Microprocessor

microprocessorsprocessorchip
At each antenna the current from the transmitter passes through a phase shifter device which are all controlled by a microprocessor (computer).

Phase (waves)

phasephase shiftout of phase
By controlling the phase of the feed current, the nondirectional radio waves emitted by the individual antennas can be made to combine in front of the antenna by the process of interference, forming a strong beam (or beams) of radio waves pointed in any desired direction.

Wave interference

interferencedestructive interferenceconstructive interference
By controlling the phase of the feed current, the nondirectional radio waves emitted by the individual antennas can be made to combine in front of the antenna by the process of interference, forming a strong beam (or beams) of radio waves pointed in any desired direction.

Radio receiver

receiverreceiversRadios
In a receiving antenna the weak individual radio signals received by each antenna element are combined in the correct phase to enhance signals coming from a particular direction, so the antenna can be made sensitive to the signal from a particular station and reject interfering signals from other directions.

Frequency

frequenciesperiodperiodic
Because the individual antenna elements must be small, conformal arrays are typically limited to high frequencies in the UHF or microwave range, where the wavelength of the waves is small enough that small antennas can be used.

Microwave

microwavesmicrowave radiationmicrowave tube
Because the individual antenna elements must be small, conformal arrays are typically limited to high frequencies in the UHF or microwave range, where the wavelength of the waves is small enough that small antennas can be used.

Wavelength

wavelengthsperiodsubwavelength
Because the individual antenna elements must be small, conformal arrays are typically limited to high frequencies in the UHF or microwave range, where the wavelength of the waves is small enough that small antennas can be used.

Boeing X-32

X-32Boeing X-32B Boeing X-32 Joint Strike Fighter
The purpose of the high sweep angle was to allow for a thick wing section to be used while still providing limited transonic aerodynamic drag, and to provide a good angle for wing-installed conformal antenna equipment.

Planar transmission line

finlineslotlinea planar form
For printed antennae, that are conformal to the device shape, flexible, hence very thin, substrates are required.

HAL AMCA

AMCAadvanced avionicsfifth generation stealth aircraft
Radar absorbing structures and radome, body conformal antennae surface hard aperture, flush air data sensors and frequency selective surface (FSS) radome are used to reduce radar detection.

Antenna array

directional arrayplanar arrayarray
Conformal array - a two-dimensional phased array which is not flat, but conforms to some curved surface. The individual elements are driven by phase shifters which compensate for the varying path lengths, allowing the antenna to radiate a plane wave beam. Conformal antennas are often integrated into the curving skin of aircraft and missiles, to reduce aerodynamic drag.