No Results Found!
2,199 Related Articles

Chinese theology

Taiyicelestial bureaucracyGod of Heaven
Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE), who considered himself a recodifier and retransmitter of the theology and values inherited from the Shang (c. 1600–1046 BCE) and Zhou dynasties (c.
Chinese theology, which comes in different interpretations according to the classic texts and the common religion, and specifically Confucian, Taoist and other philosophical formulations, is fundamentally monistic, that is to say it sees the world and the gods of its phenomena as an organic whole, or cosmos, which continuously emerges from a simple principle.

Confucius

ConfucianConfucianism
Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE), who considered himself a recodifier and retransmitter of the theology and values inherited from the Shang (c. 1600–1046 BCE) and Zhou dynasties (c.
The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity.

Chinese philosophy

philosophyChinese philosopherphilosopher
Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE), who considered himself a recodifier and retransmitter of the theology and values inherited from the Shang (c. 1600–1046 BCE) and Zhou dynasties (c.
It was during the Warring States era that what Sima Tan termed the major philosophical schools of China: Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism, arose, along with philosophies that later fell into obscurity, like Agriculturalism, Mohism, Chinese Naturalism, and the Logicians.

Han dynasty

HanHan EmpireEastern Han dynasty
In the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), Confucian approaches edged out the "proto-Taoist" Huang–Lao as the official ideology, while the emperors mixed both with the realist techniques of Legalism.
From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu.

Neo-Confucianism

Neo-ConfucianNeo-ConfucianistNeo-Confucians
In the late Tang, Confucianism developed in response to Buddhism and Taoism and was reformulated as Neo-Confucianism.
Neo-Confucianism (, often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.

Tang dynasty

TangTang ChinaTang Empire
A Confucian revival began during the Tang dynasty (618–907).
Although killing two brothers and deposing his father contradicted the Confucian value of filial piety, Taizong showed himself to be a capable leader who listened to the advice of the wisest members of his council.

Maoism

MaoistMaoistsMao Zedong Thought
They searched for new doctrines to replace Confucian teachings; some of these new ideologies include the "Three Principles of the People" with the establishment of the Republic of China, and then Maoism under the People's Republic of China.
By the turn of the 20th century, a proportionately small yet socially significant cross-section of China's traditional elite (i.e. landlords and bureaucrats) found themselves increasingly skeptical of the efficacy and even the moral validity of Confucianism.

Song dynasty

SongSouthern SongNorthern Song dynasty
This reinvigorated form was adopted as the basis of the imperial exams and the core philosophy of the scholar official class in the Song dynasty (960–1297).
Philosophers such as Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi reinvigorated Confucianism with new commentary, infused with Buddhist ideals, and emphasized a new organization of classic texts that brought out the core doctrine of Neo-Confucianism.

New Culture Movement

New CultureNew Culture" movementthe development of new culture
The intellectuals of the New Culture Movement of the early twentieth century blamed Confucianism for China's weaknesses.
Scholars such as Chen Duxiu, Cai Yuanpei, Li Dazhao, Lu Xun, Zhou Zuoren, He Dong, and Hu Shih, had classical educations but began to lead a revolt against Confucianism.

East Asia

Easteastern AsiaEastern
In the late twentieth century Confucian work ethic has been credited with the rise of the East Asian economy. Today, it has been credited for shaping East Asian societies and Chinese communities, and to some extent, other parts of Asia.
Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana ), Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion in Greater China, Buddhism and Shintoism in Japan, and Christianity, Buddhism, and Sindoism in Korea.

Culture of Taiwan

Taiwanese cultureTaiwanculture
Traditionally, cultures and countries in the East Asian cultural sphere are strongly influenced by Confucianism, including mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, as well as various territories settled predominantly by Chinese people, such as Singapore.
The culture of Taiwan is a blend of Confucianist Han Chinese and Taiwanese aborigine cultures, which are often perceived in both traditional and modern understandings.

Tao

DaoWay
While Tiān has some characteristics that overlap the category of godhead, it is primarily an impersonal absolute principle, like the Dào or the Brahman.
Some scholars make sharp distinctions between moral or ethical usage of the word "Tao" that is prominent in Confucianism and religious Taoism and the more metaphysical usage of the term used in philosophical Taoism and most forms of Mahayana Buddhism; others maintain that these are not separate usages or meanings, seeing them as mutually inclusive and compatible approaches to defining the principle.

Tian

HeavenTiān
According to Herbert Fingarette's conceptualisation of Confucianism as a religion which regards "the secular as sacred", Confucianism transcends the dichotomy between religion and humanism, considering the ordinary activities of human life—and especially human relationships—as a manifestation of the sacred, because they are the expression of humanity's moral nature (xìng 性), which has a transcendent anchorage in Heaven (Tiān 天) and unfolds through an appropriate respect for the spirits or gods (shén) of the world.
In Taoism and Confucianism, Tiān (the celestial aspect of the cosmos, often translated as "Heaven") is mentioned in relationship to its complementary aspect of Dì (地, often translated as "Earth").

Culture of Vietnam

VietnameseVietnamese cultureVietnam
Traditionally, cultures and countries in the East Asian cultural sphere are strongly influenced by Confucianism, including mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, as well as various territories settled predominantly by Chinese people, such as Singapore.
Due to a millennium of Chinese rule, Vietnam was heavily and remarkably influenced by Chinese culture in terms of politics, government, Confucian social and moral ethics, and art.

Four Books and Five Classics

Five ClassicsConfucian ClassicsFour Books
Traditionally, Confucius was thought to be the author or editor of the Five Classics which were the basic texts of Confucianism.
The Four Books and Five Classics are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC.

Asia

AsianAsian continentAsian countries
Today, it has been credited for shaping East Asian societies and Chinese communities, and to some extent, other parts of Asia.
Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Jainism, Sikhism, Zoroastrianism, as well as many other religions.

Legalism (Chinese philosophy)

LegalismLegalistLegalists
In the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), Confucian approaches edged out the "proto-Taoist" Huang–Lao as the official ideology, while the emperors mixed both with the realist techniques of Legalism.
The authority to make policy is a basic difference between Confucianism and the Fa-Jia.

Culture of Hong Kong

Hong Kong cultureHong KongCantonese
Traditionally, cultures and countries in the East Asian cultural sphere are strongly influenced by Confucianism, including mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, as well as various territories settled predominantly by Chinese people, such as Singapore.
In Hong Kong, traditional Confucian-derived values such as "family solidarity", "courtesy" and "saving face" carry significant weight in the minds of the people.

Four occupations

merchantsshifour classes
Book of Rites describes the social forms, administration, and ceremonial rites of the Zhou Dynasty. This social vision defined society not as an adversarial system based on contractual relations but as a community of trust based on social responsibility. The four functional occupations are cooperative (farmer, scholar, artisan, merchant).
The four occupations or "four categories of the people" was an occupation classification used in ancient China by either Confucian or Legalist scholars as far back as the late Zhou dynasty and is considered a central part of the fengjian social structure (c. 1046–256 BC).

Zhou dynasty

ZhouZhou, ChinaZhou dynasties
Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE), who considered himself a recodifier and retransmitter of the theology and values inherited from the Shang (c. 1600–1046 BCE) and Zhou dynasties (c.
The Nine Schools of Thought which came to dominate the others were Confucianism (as interpreted by Mencius and others), Legalism, Taoism, Mohism, the utopian communalist Agriculturalism, two strains of Diplomatists, the sophistic Logicians, Sun-tzu's Militarists, and the Naturalists.

Huang–Lao

Huang-Lao DaoismTaoisticHuáng-Lǎo
In the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), Confucian approaches edged out the "proto-Taoist" Huang–Lao as the official ideology, while the emperors mixed both with the realist techniques of Legalism.
Huang–Lao Daoist philosophy was favoured at the Western Han courts of Emperor Wen (r. 180–157 BCE) and Emperor Jing (r. 157–141 BCE), before Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BCE) established Confucianism as the state philosophy.

Classic of Poetry

Book of SongsBook of OdesShijing
Classic of Poetry or Book of Songs is the earliest anthology of Chinese poems and songs. It shows the poetic vision in the belief that poetry and music convey common human feelings and mutual responsiveness.
Early references refer to the anthology as the 300 Poems (shi). The Odes first became known as a jīng, or a "classic book", in the canonical sense, as part of the Han Dynasty official adoption of Confucianism as the guiding principles of Chinese society.

Mencius

MengziMeng KeMencian Sprouts
Confucianism was initiated by Confucius, developed by Mencius (~372–289 BCE) and inherited by later generations, undergoing constant transformations and restructuring since its establishment, but preserving the principles of humaneness and righteousness at its core.
He was an itinerant Chinese philosopher and sage, and one of the principal interpreters of Confucianism.

Tu Weiming

Tu Wei-Ming
The scholar Tu Weiming explains these classics as embodying "five visions" which underlie the development of Confucianism:
He obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree (1961) in Chinese studies from Tunghai University and learned from such prominent Confucian scholars as Mou Zongsan, Tang Junyi, and Xu Fuguan.

Scholar-official

literatischolar-bureaucratsscholar-bureaucrat
This reinvigorated form was adopted as the basis of the imperial exams and the core philosophy of the scholar official class in the Song dynasty (960–1297).
The scholar-officials were schooled in calligraphy and Confucian texts.