Congress Poland

Map of Congress Poland, circa 1815, following the Congress of Vienna. The Russian Empire is shown in light green.
Eagle of an officer in the Army of Congress Poland
Map of Congress Poland, circa 1815, following the Congress of Vienna. The Russian Empire is shown in light green.
Naval Ensign of Polish ships (1784–19th century)
The Kingdom of Poland, 1815–1830
Administrative divisions of Congress Poland in 1830
An advertisement of cameras made by a Polish company FOS (1905). Cameras, objectives and stereoscopes were exclusively made in Congress Poland.
An early photograph of Manufaktura in Łódź. The city was considered to be one of the largest textile industry centres in Europe and was nicknamed Polish Manchester.

Polity created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a semi-autonomous Polish state and successor to Napoleon's Duchy of Warsaw.

- Congress Poland

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January Uprising

Poland - The Year 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. Pictured is the aftermath of the failed January 1863 Uprising. Captives await transportation to Siberia. Russian officers and soldiers supervise a blacksmith placing shackles on a woman (Polonia). The blonde girl next to her represents Lithuania.
Administrative divisions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth within the pre-partition borders of 1772, introduced by the National Government during the January Uprising in 1863
Russian army in Warsaw during martial law 1861
"The Battle" from the cycle of paintings "Polonia" dedicated to January Uprising of 1863 - Artur Grottger.
Marian Langiewicz, military commander
Battles of January Uprising in Congress Poland 1863-1864
Battles of January Uprising in Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus and Ukraine
January Uprising's coat of arms, of a proposed Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth: White Eagle (Poland), Vytis (Lithuania) and Archangel Michael (Ruthenia)
Flag of the uprising
Władysław Czartoryski
Napoléon III, 1865
Andriolli: The death of Ludwik Narbutt
Zouaves of Death (żuawi śmierci), an 1863 Uprising unit organized by François Rochebrune. Drawing (published 1909) by K. Sariusz-Wolski, from a photograph. From left: Count Wojciech Komorowski, Col. Rochebrune, Lt. Tenente Bella
Malczewski: Christmas Eve in Siberia
Farewell to Europe, by Aleksander Sochaczewski. The artist himself is among the exiled here, near the obelisk, on the right
Anna Pustowojtówna, alias "Michał Smok"
Last veterans of the January Uprising, photographed in the Second Polish Republic, c. 1930
thumb|Archbishop of Warsaw Feliński
Romuald Traugutt
Fr. Stanisław Brzóska (original photo portrait)
Aleksander Wielopolski
Alexander II of Russia
Z. Sierakowski 1863
Mikhail Muravyov-Vilensky
Ludwik Mierosławski
Juliusz Kossak, Polish partisans of 1863
Battle of Węgrów 1863
Russian soldiers looting a Polish manor
Chapel in Vilnius, erected to commemorate the crushing of the 1863 January Uprising against Russia, picture taken Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii
Graves of January Uprising veterans at Warsaw's Powązki Cemetery
Cross commemorating 70th Anniversary of January Uprising

The January Uprising (powstanie styczniowe; 1863 metų sukilimas; ; Польское восстание; Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863—1864 гадоў) was an insurrection principally in Russia's Kingdom of Poland aimed at the restoration of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Kingdom of Poland (1917–1918)

Archduke Charles Stephen (Karl Stephan) in 1917
Governors-General Beseler (first from left) and Kuk (second from left) in 1916
Occupation of the Kingdom of Poland during World War I:
Józef Piłsudski
The Regency Council. Left to right: Ostrowski, Kakowski, and Lubomirski
Members of the Regency Council with officers of the Polish Army

The Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Polskie, Königreich Polen), also known informally as the Regency Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Regencyjne), was a short-lived polity and client state proclaimed during World War I by the German Empire and Austria-Hungary on the territories of the former Russian-ruled Congress Poland, governed at the time by the Central Powers as the Government General of Warsaw.

Governorate (Russia)

Major and principal administrative subdivision of the Russian Empire.

Division of Russia into eight governorates in 1708
Subdivisions of the Russian Empire in 1914

Selected governorates were united under an assigned governor general such as the Grand Duchy of Finland, Congress Poland, Russian Turkestan and others.

Partitions of Poland

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

Allegory of the first partition of Poland, showing Catherine the Great of Russia (left), Joseph II of Austria and Frederick the Great of Prussia (right) quarrelling over their territorial seizures
Włodzimierz Tetmajer, Allegory of Dead Poland, St. Nicholas Cathedral, Kalisz
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth after the First Partition, as a protectorate of the Russian Empire (1773–89)
Rejtan at Sejm 1773, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1866, 282 x, Royal Castle in Warsaw
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Second Partition (1793)
1793 Russian campaign medal
"A map of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania including Samogitia and Curland divided according to their dismemberments with the Kingdom of Prussia" from 1799
The partition of Poland according to the German–Soviet Pact; division of Polish territories in the years 1939–1941

Following the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the borders of the three partitioned sectors were redrawn; the Austrians established Galicia in the Austrian partition, whereas the Russians gained Warsaw from Prussia and formed an autonomous polity of Congress Poland in the Russian partition.

November Uprising

The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution,

Taking of the Warsaw Arsenal. Painting by Marcin Zaleski.
Coat-of-arms of the November Uprising
Flag of the November Uprising that carried the motto "For our freedom and yours"
Fighting between Polish insurgents and the Russian cuirassiers on a bridge in Warsaw's Łazienki Park. In the background, an equestrian statue of King John III Sobieski (painting by Wojciech Kossak, 1898)
Battle of Stoczek by Jan Rosen
Battle of Olszynka Grochowska
Emilia Plater leading scythemen 1831
Seal of the Dictator of the uprising
Battle of Ostrołęka (painting by Juliusz Kossak)
Relics of the uprising of 1831, exhibited in the National Museum of Lithuania in Vilnius.
Comparison of number of soldiers of both sides during Polish-Russian War in 1831
Charge of the Polish uhlans city of Poznań during November Uprising
Lithuanian Litas commemorative coin dedicated to the uprising
Polish 2 złoty coin from the Uprising

The Austrian Empire annexed territories in the South, Prussia took control over the semi-autonomous Grand Duchy of Poznań in the West, and Russia assumed hegemony over the semi-autonomous so-called Congress Kingdom.

Province of Posen

Province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1848 to 1920.

Posen (red) within Prussia (white) and the German Empire (white, beige and red)
1919 German army permit to enter the Polish territory of Posen, just ceded to Poland.
Posen (red) within Prussia (white) and the German Empire (white, beige and red)
Province of Posen, 1905, Polish-speaking areas according to Prussian census shown in yellow
Regierungsbezirke Posen (pink) and Bromberg (green) and Kreise subdivisions
Language situation in the province of Posen according to the Prussian census of 1910.

It was officially ended in Prussia (see Freiherr vom Stein) in 1810 (1864 in Congress Poland), but lingered in some practices until the late 19th century.

World War I

World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, began on 28 July 1914 and ended on 11 November 1918.

Clockwise from the top: The road to Bapaume in the aftermath of the Battle of the Somme, 1916

British Mark V tanks crossing the Hindenburg Line, 1918

 sinking after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, 1915

A British Vickers machine gun crew wearing gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, 1916

German Albatros D.III biplane fighters near Douai, France, 1917
Rival military coalitions in 1914: Triple Entente in green; Triple Alliance in brown. Only the Triple Alliance was a formal "alliance"; the others listed were informal patterns of support.
, a, Germany's first response to the British Dreadnought
Sarajevo citizens reading a poster with the proclamation of the Austrian annexation in 1908
Traditionally thought to show the arrest of Gavrilo Princip (right), historians now believe this photo depicts an innocent bystander, Ferdinand Behr
Crowds on the streets in the aftermath of the anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo, 29 June 1914
Ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910. Bosnia-Herzegovina was annexed in 1908.
Cheering crowds in London and Paris on the day war was declared.
Serbian Army Blériot XI "Oluj", 1915
German soldiers on the way to the front in 1914; at this stage, all sides expected the conflict to be a short one.
French bayonet charge during the Battle of the Frontiers; by the end of August, French casualties exceeded 260,000, including 75,000 dead.
World empires and colonies around 1914
The British Indian infantry divisions were withdrawn from France in December 1915, and sent to Mesopotamia.
Trenches of the 11th Cheshire Regiment at Ovillers-la-Boisselle, on the Somme, July 1916
Royal Irish Rifles in a communications trench, first day on the Somme, 1916
Dead German soldiers at Somme 1916
King George V (front left) and a group of officials inspect a British munitions factory in 1917.
Battleships of the Hochseeflotte, 1917
U-155 exhibited near Tower Bridge in London, after the 1918 Armistice
Refugee transport from Serbia in Leibnitz, Styria, 1914
Bulgarian soldiers in a trench, preparing to fire against an incoming aeroplane
Austro-Hungarian troops executing captured Serbians, 1917. Serbia lost about 850,000 people during the war, a quarter of its pre-war population.
Australian troops charging near a Turkish trench during the Gallipoli Campaign
Mehmed V greeting Wilhelm II on his arrival at Constantinople
Kaiser Wilhelm II inspecting Turkish troops of the 15th Corps in East Galicia, Austria-Hungary (now Poland). Prince Leopold of Bavaria, the Supreme Commander of the German Army on the Eastern Front, is second from the left.
Russian forest trench at the Battle of Sarikamish, 1914–1915
Isonzo Offensives 1915-1917
Austro-Hungarian trench at 3,850 metres in the Ortler Alps, one of the most challenging fronts of the war
Romanian troops during the Battle of Mărășești, 1917
Emperor Nicholas II and Commander-in-Chief Nikolai Nikolaevich in the captured Przemysl. The Russian Siege of Przemyśl was the longest siege of the war.
"They shall not pass", a phrase typically associated with the defence of Verdun
President Wilson asking Congress to declare war on Germany, 2 April 1917
The Allied Avenue, 1917 painting by Childe Hassam, that depicts Manhattan's Fifth Avenue decorated with flags from Allied nations
French infantry advance on the Chemin des Dames, April 1917
Canadian Corps troops at the Battle of Vimy Ridge, 1917
10.5 cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 and Ottoman artillerymen at Hareira in 1917 before the Southern Palestine offensive
British artillery battery on Mount Scopus in the Battle of Jerusalem, 1917. Foreground, a battery of 16 heavy guns. Background, conical tents and support vehicles.
Ottoman troops during the Mesopotamian campaign
French soldiers under General Gouraud, with machine guns amongst the ruins of a cathedral near the Marne, 1918
British 55th (West Lancashire) Division soldiers blinded by tear gas during the Battle of Estaires, 10 April 1918
Between April and November 1918, the Allies increased their front-line rifle strength while German strength fell by half.
Aerial view of ruins of Vaux-devant-Damloup, France, 1918
16th Bn (Canadian Scottish), advancing during the Battle of the Canal du Nord, 1918
An American major, piloting an observation balloon near the front, 1918
German Revolution, Kiel, 1918
Italian troops reach Trento during the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, 1918. Italy's victory marked the end of the war on the Italian Front and secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Ferdinand Foch, second from right, pictured outside the carriage in Compiègne after agreeing to the armistice that ended the war there. The carriage was later chosen by Nazi Germany as the symbolic setting of Pétain's June 1940 armistice.
The signing of the Treaty of Versailles in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28 June 1919, by Sir William Orpen
Greek prime minister Eleftherios Venizelos signing the Treaty of Sèvres
Dissolution of Austria-Hungary after war
Map of territorial changes in Europe after World WarI (as of 1923)
Czechoslovak Legion, Vladivostok, 1918
Transporting Ottoman wounded at Sirkeci
Emergency military hospital during the Spanish flu pandemic, which killed about 675,000 people in the United States alone, Camp Funston, Kansas, 1918
Tanks on parade in London at the end of World War I
A Russian armoured car, 1919
38-cm "Lange Max" of Koekelare (Leugenboom),the biggest gun in the world in 1917
A Canadian soldier with mustard gas burns, c. 1917–1918
British Vickers machine gun, 1917
Royal Air Force Sopwith Camel. In April 1917, the average life expectancy of a British pilot on the Western Front was 93 flying hours.
Luftstreitkräfte Fokker Dr.I being inspected by Manfred von Richthofen, also known as the Red Baron.
Mobile radio station in German South West Africa, using a hydrogen balloon to lift the antenna
Austro-Hungarian soldiers executing men and women in Serbia, 1916
HMS Baralong
French soldiers making a gas and flame attack on German trenches in Flanders
Armenians killed during the Armenian Genocide. Image taken from Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, written by Henry Morgenthau Sr. and published in 1918.
German prisoners in a French prison camp during the later part of the war
British prisoners guarded by Ottoman forces after the First Battle of Gaza in 1917
Poster urging women to join the British war effort, published by the Young Women's Christian Association
Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps First Contingent in Bermuda, winter 1914–1915, before joining 1 Lincolnshire Regiment in France in June 1915. The dozen remaining after Guedecourt on 25 September 1916, merged with a Second Contingent. The two contingents suffered 75% casualties.
Sackville Street (now O'Connell Street) after the 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin
The Deserter, 1916: Anti-war cartoon depicting Jesus facing a firing squad with soldiers from five European countries
Possible execution at Verdun at the time of the mutinies in 1917. The original French text accompanying this photograph notes, however, that the uniforms are those of 1914–15 and that the execution may be that of a spy at the beginning of the war.
Bolshevik leaders Lenin and Trotsky promised "Peace, Land and Bread" to the impoverished masses
Young men registering for conscription, New York City, 5 June 1917
Military recruitment in Melbourne, Australia, 1914
British volunteer recruits in London, August 1914
1917 political cartoon about the Zimmermann Telegram. The message was intercepted by the British; its publication caused outrage and contributed to the U.S. entry into World War I.
The Italian Redipuglia War Memorial, which contains the remains of 100,187 soldiers
A typical village war memorial to soldiers killed in World War I
A 1919 book for veterans, from the US War Department
Poster showing women workers, 1915
War memorial to soldiers of the 49th Bengalee Regiment (Bangali Platoon) in Kolkata, India, who died in the war.

The battle finally ended in September 1915 with the entirety of Poland and parts of Minsk being occupied.

Puppet state

State that is de jure independent but de facto completely dependent upon an outside power and subject to its orders.

Map of the Finnish Democratic Republic (1939–40), a short-lived puppet state of the Soviet Union. Green indicates the area that the Soviet Union planned to cede to the Finnish Democratic Republic, and red the areas ceded by Democratic Finland to the Soviet Union.
First French Empire and French satellite states in 1812
Map of the British Indian Empire. The princely states are in yellow.
Location of Manchukuo (red) within Imperial Japan's sphere of influence
Wang Jingwei receiving German diplomats while head of state in 1941
German-occupied Europe at the height of the Axis conquests in 1942
Abkhazian President Alexander Ankvab with Transnistrian President Yevgeny Shevchuk in 2013. Both Abkhazia and Transnistria have been described as puppet states of Russia.
Northern Cyprus in 2009

Kingdom of Poland (1916–1918) – The Central Powers' forces occupied Russian Congress Poland in 1915 and in 1916 the German Empire and Austria-Hungary created a Polish Monarchy to exploit the occupied territories in an easier way and mobilize the Poles against the Russians (see Polish Legions). In 1918 the state became independent and formed the backbone of the new internationally recognized Second Polish Republic.

Alexander I of Russia

Portrait by George Dawe
Confirmation of Alexander's wife Elizabeth Alexeievna
Portrait of Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich, 1800, by Vladimir Borovikovsky
Equestrian portrait of Alexander I by Franz Krüger
Imperial monogram of Alexander I
Napoleon, Alexander, Queen Louise, and Frederick William III of Prussia in Tilsit, 1807
Meeting of Napoleon and Alexander I in Tilsit, a 19th-century painting by Adolphe Roehn
The French Empire in 1812 at its greatest extent
The Battle of Ganja during the Russo-Persian War
The retreat across the Berezina of the remnants of Napoleon's Grande Armée in November 1812
Alexander, Francis I of Austria and Frederick William III of Prussia meeting after the Battle of Leipzig, 1813
The Russian Army entering Paris in 1814
Alexander I by Lawrence (1814-18, Royal collection)
Alexander I confirmed the new Finnish constitution and made Finland an autonomous Grand Duchy at the Diet of Porvoo in 1809.
Ioannis Kapodistrias, Russia's former foreign minister, was elected as the first head of state of independent Greece
Alexander and Louise of Baden
The bust of Alexander I at the yard of the Helsinki University in 1986
Death of Alexander I in Taganrog (19th century lithograph)
Alexander I Palace in Taganrog, where the emperor died in 1825
The funeral procession from Taganrog to St. Petersburg

Alexander I (23 December 1777 – 1 December 1825) was Emperor of Russia from 1801, the first King of Congress Poland from 1815, and the Grand Duke of Finland from 1809 to his death.

Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria

Kingdom within the Austrian Empire, later Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, established in 1772 as a crownland of the Habsburg monarchy.

Galicia and Lodomeria in Austria-Hungary (map showing territorial scope from 1849 to 1918)
Physical map of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, 1849–1918
Galicia and Lodomeria in Austria-Hungary (map showing territorial scope from 1849 to 1918)
Galician slaughter (Polish "Rzeź galicyjska") by Jan Lewicki (1795–1871)
The Galician Sejm (parliament) in Lviv
The Siege of Przemyśl in 1915
Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Galicia, 1914
The Vice-regency Office in Lviv
People of East Galicia
Map of a region where Ruthenians and Russians lived in the Austrian Empire – Galicia and Hungarian Russia (Carpathian Ruthenia) – by Dmitry Vergun
Until 1918, Choral Synagogue of Drohobych had been the central synagogue of Galicia and Lodomeria
Rail lines of Galicia before 1897
The 13th Galicia Lancer Regiment at the Battle of Custoza
Shako of the Polish National Guard in Lviv in 1848
Rudolf Barracks in Kraków
Boundaries of modern states overlaid on the kingdom's boundaries
1772–1800, 1849–90
1800–49, 1890-1918

In 1815, as a result of decisions of the Congress of Vienna, the Lublin area and surrounding regions (most of the New or West Galicia) were ceded by the Austrian Empire to Congress Poland (Kingdom of Poland), which was ruled by the Tsar, and the Ternopil Region, including the historical region of Southern Podolia, was returned to the Austrian Empire by Russia, which had held it since 1809.