Connecticut Compromise

Great Compromisecompromise on representationConnecticut Compromise (USA)
The Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman Compromise) was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution.wikipedia
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Constitutional Convention (United States)

Constitutional ConventionPhiladelphia ConventionConstitutional Convention of 1787
The Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman Compromise) was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution.
Progress was slow until mid-July, when the Connecticut Compromise resolved enough lingering arguments for a draft written by the Committee of Detail to gain acceptance.

Bicameralism

bicameralbicameral legislaturechambers
It retained the bicameral legislature as proposed by Roger Sherman, along with proportional representation of the states in the lower house, but required the upper house to be weighted equally among the states. On May 29, 1787, Edmund Randolph of the Virginia delegation proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature.
As part of the Great Compromise, the Founding Fathers invented a new rationale for bicameralism in which the Senate had an equal number of delegates per state, and the House had representatives by relative populations.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
The Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman Compromise) was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution.
In its report, now known as the Connecticut Compromise (or "Great Compromise"), the committee proposed proportional representation for seats in the House of Representatives based on population (with the people voting for representatives), and equal representation for each State in the Senate (with each state's legislators generally choosing their respective senators), and that all money bills would originate in the House.

Roger Sherman

Elizabeth Hartwell
It retained the bicameral legislature as proposed by Roger Sherman, along with proportional representation of the states in the lower house, but required the upper house to be weighted equally among the states. Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth, both of the Connecticut delegation, created a compromise that, in a sense, blended the Virginia (large-state) and New Jersey (small-state) proposals regarding congressional apportionment.
He ultimately came to support the establishment of a new constitution, and proposed the Connecticut Compromise, which won the approval of both the larger states and the smaller states.

United States Senate

U.S. SenatorUnited States SenatorU.S. Senate
Each state would have two representatives in the upper house.
This idea of having one chamber represent people equally, while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise.

William Paterson (judge)

William PatersonPatersonJudge William Paterson
In response, on June 15, 1787, William Paterson of the New Jersey delegation proposed a legislature consisting of a single house.
After the Great Compromise (for two legislative bodies: a Senate with equal representation for each state, and a House of Representatives with representation based on population), the Constitution was signed.

Virginia Plan

a plan
This proposal was known as the Virginia Plan.
In the end, the convention settled on the Connecticut Compromise, creating a House of Representatives apportioned by population and a Senate in which each state is equally represented.

History of the United States Senate

Hamilton argued that the states were artificial entities made up of individuals, and accused small state representatives of wanting power, not liberty (see History of the United States Senate).
The history of the institution begins prior to that date, at the 1787 Constitutional Convention, in James Madison's Virginia Plan, which proposed a bicameral national legislature, and in the Connecticut Compromise, an agreement reached between delegates from small-population states and those from large-population states that in part defined the structure and representation that each state would have in the new Congress.

Connecticut

CTState of ConnecticutConn.
Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth, both of the Connecticut delegation, created a compromise that, in a sense, blended the Virginia (large-state) and New Jersey (small-state) proposals regarding congressional apportionment.
It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States (see Connecticut Compromise).

James Madison

MadisonPresident MadisonPresident James Madison
James Madison and Hamilton were two of the leaders of the proportional representation group.
In response, Roger Sherman proposed the Connecticut Compromise, which sought to balance the interests of small and large states.

Oliver Ellsworth

EllsworthEllsworth, OliverJemima (Leavitt) Ellsworth
Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth, both of the Connecticut delegation, created a compromise that, in a sense, blended the Virginia (large-state) and New Jersey (small-state) proposals regarding congressional apportionment.
While at the convention, Ellsworth played a role in fashioning the Connecticut Compromise between the more populous states and the less populous states.

Origination Clause

Article I, Section 7originate revenue billsrevenue raising bills
Because it was considered more responsive to majority sentiment, the House of Representatives was given the power to originate all legislation dealing with the federal budget and revenues/taxation, per the Origination Clause.
This clause was part of the Great Compromise between small and large states.

New Jersey Plan

The New Jersey Plan, as it was called, would have left the Articles of Confederation in place, but would have amended them to somewhat increase Congress's powers.
Perhaps the most important of these was introduced by the Connecticut Compromise, which established a bicameral legislature with the U.S. House of Representatives apportioned by population, as desired by the Virginia Plan, and the Senate granted equal votes per state, as desired by the New Jersey Plan.

Elbridge Gerry

Elbridge T. GerryMr. GerryDeath of Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry ridiculed the small states' claim of sovereignty, saying "that we never were independent States, were not such now, & never could be even on the principles of the Confederation. The States & the advocates for them were intoxicated with the idea of their sovereignty."
He supported the idea that the Senate composition should not be determined by population; the view that it should instead be composed of equal numbers of members for each state prevailed in the Connecticut Compromise.

Three-Fifths Compromise

three-fifths clausethree-fifthsThree Fifths Compromise
This agreement allowed deliberations to continue and thus led to the Three-Fifths Compromise, which further complicated the issue of popular representation in the House.
While the Three-Fifths Compromise could be seen to favor Southern states because of their large slave populations, for example, the Connecticut Compromise tended to favor the Northern states (which were generally smaller).

Edmund Randolph

Edmund Jennings RandolphMr. RandolphEdmund J. Randolph
On May 29, 1787, Edmund Randolph of the Virginia delegation proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature.

Virginia

Commonwealth of VirginiaVAState of Virginia
On May 29, 1787, Edmund Randolph of the Virginia delegation proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature.

Delaware

DEState of DelawareGeography of Delaware
Less populous states like Delaware were afraid that such an arrangement would result in their voices and interests being drowned out by the larger states.

Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual UnionConfederationArticles
Many delegates also felt that the Convention did not have the authority to completely scrap the Articles of Confederation, as the Virginia Plan would have.

New Jersey

NJState of New JerseyJersey
In response, on June 15, 1787, William Paterson of the New Jersey delegation proposed a legislature consisting of a single house.

Congress of the Confederation

Confederation CongressCongressContinental Congress
The New Jersey Plan, as it was called, would have left the Articles of Confederation in place, but would have amended them to somewhat increase Congress's powers.

State cessions

western land claimscessionWestern territorial claims
At the time of the convention, the South was growing more quickly than the North, and Southern states had the most extensive Western claims.

South Carolina

SCState of South CarolinaS.C.
South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia were small in the 1780s, but they expected growth, and thus favored proportional representation.

North Carolina

NCNorthState of North Carolina
South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia were small in the 1780s, but they expected growth, and thus favored proportional representation.

Georgia (U.S. state)

GeorgiaGAState of Georgia
South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia were small in the 1780s, but they expected growth, and thus favored proportional representation.