Consciousness

consciousconsciouslyhuman consciousnessconscious mindphenomenal consciousnessconsciousness studiesstate of consciousnessstates of consciousnessconscious experiencesemiconscious
Consciousness at its simplest refers to “sentience or awareness of internal or external existence”.wikipedia
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Mind

mentalhuman mindmental content
Despite centuries of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial, being “at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives". Perhaps the only widely agreed notion about the topic is the intuition that it exists. Opinions differ about what exactly needs to be studied and explained as consciousness. Sometimes it is synonymous with 'the mind', other times just an aspect of mind. In the past it was one's “inner life”, the world of introspection, of private thought, imagination and volition. Today, with modern research into the brain it often includes any kind of experience, cognition, feeling or perception. It may be ‘awareness’, or 'awareness of awareness’, or self-awareness. There might be different levels or "orders" of consciousness, or different kinds of consciousness, or just one kind with different features.
The mind is the set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, imagination, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory, which is housed in the brain (sometimes including the central nervous system).

Introspection

introspectivereflectionself-reflection
Despite centuries of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial, being “at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives". Perhaps the only widely agreed notion about the topic is the intuition that it exists. Opinions differ about what exactly needs to be studied and explained as consciousness. Sometimes it is synonymous with 'the mind', other times just an aspect of mind. In the past it was one's “inner life”, the world of introspection, of private thought, imagination and volition. Today, with modern research into the brain it often includes any kind of experience, cognition, feeling or perception. It may be ‘awareness’, or 'awareness of awareness’, or self-awareness. There might be different levels or "orders" of consciousness, or different kinds of consciousness, or just one kind with different features.
Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings.

Awareness

awarenoticingAwareness Program
Despite centuries of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial, being “at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives". Perhaps the only widely agreed notion about the topic is the intuition that it exists. Opinions differ about what exactly needs to be studied and explained as consciousness. Sometimes it is synonymous with 'the mind', other times just an aspect of mind. In the past it was one's “inner life”, the world of introspection, of private thought, imagination and volition. Today, with modern research into the brain it often includes any kind of experience, cognition, feeling or perception. It may be ‘awareness’, or 'awareness of awareness’, or self-awareness. There might be different levels or "orders" of consciousness, or different kinds of consciousness, or just one kind with different features. Consciousness at its simplest refers to “sentience or awareness of internal or external existence”.
More broadly, it is the state of being conscious of something.

Self-awareness

self-awareself awarenessself-observation
Despite centuries of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial, being “at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives". Perhaps the only widely agreed notion about the topic is the intuition that it exists. Opinions differ about what exactly needs to be studied and explained as consciousness. Sometimes it is synonymous with 'the mind', other times just an aspect of mind. In the past it was one's “inner life”, the world of introspection, of private thought, imagination and volition. Today, with modern research into the brain it often includes any kind of experience, cognition, feeling or perception. It may be ‘awareness’, or 'awareness of awareness’, or self-awareness. There might be different levels or "orders" of consciousness, or different kinds of consciousness, or just one kind with different features.
It is not to be confused with consciousness in the sense of qualia.

Self

self-interestselvesselfhood
Examples of the range of descriptions, definitions or explanations are: simple wakefulness, one's sense of selfhood or soul explored by "looking within", or “nothing at all”; being a metaphorical "stream" of contents, or being a mental state, mental event or mental process of the brain; having phanera or qualia and subjectivity; being the ‘something that it is like' to 'have' or 'be' it; being the “inner theatre” or the executive control system of the mind.
The self is an individual person as the object of one's own reflective consciousness.

Phenomenology (philosophy)

phenomenologyphenomenologicalphenomenologist
Examples of the range of descriptions, definitions or explanations are: simple wakefulness, one's sense of selfhood or soul explored by "looking within", or “nothing at all”; being a metaphorical "stream" of contents, or being a mental state, mental event or mental process of the brain; having phanera or qualia and subjectivity; being the ‘something that it is like' to 'have' or 'be' it; being the “inner theatre” or the executive control system of the mind. These issues remain central to both continental and analytic philosophy, in phenomenology and the philosophy of mind, respectively.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.

Sentience

sentientsentient beingssentient being
Consciousness at its simplest refers to “sentience or awareness of internal or external existence”.
In the philosophy of consciousness, sentience can refer to the ability of any entity to have subjective perceptual experiences, or as some philosophers refer to them, "qualia".

Higher-order theories of consciousness

higher-order thought theories of consciousnesshigher-order thought theory of consciousnesshigher-order-thought (HOT) theory of consciousness
Despite centuries of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial, being “at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives". Perhaps the only widely agreed notion about the topic is the intuition that it exists. Opinions differ about what exactly needs to be studied and explained as consciousness. Sometimes it is synonymous with 'the mind', other times just an aspect of mind. In the past it was one's “inner life”, the world of introspection, of private thought, imagination and volition. Today, with modern research into the brain it often includes any kind of experience, cognition, feeling or perception. It may be ‘awareness’, or 'awareness of awareness’, or self-awareness. There might be different levels or "orders" of consciousness, or different kinds of consciousness, or just one kind with different features.
Higher-order theories of consciousness postulate that consciousness consists in perceptions or thoughts about first-order mental states.

Wakefulness

awakeawakeningwaking
Examples of the range of descriptions, definitions or explanations are: simple wakefulness, one's sense of selfhood or soul explored by "looking within", or “nothing at all”; being a metaphorical "stream" of contents, or being a mental state, mental event or mental process of the brain; having phanera or qualia and subjectivity; being the ‘something that it is like' to 'have' or 'be' it; being the “inner theatre” or the executive control system of the mind.
Wakefulness is a daily recurring brain state and state of consciousness in which an individual is conscious and engages in coherent cognitive and behavioral responses to the external world.

Stream of consciousness (psychology)

stream of consciousnessstream-of-consciousnesscomplex process
Examples of the range of descriptions, definitions or explanations are: simple wakefulness, one's sense of selfhood or soul explored by "looking within", or “nothing at all”; being a metaphorical "stream" of contents, or being a mental state, mental event or mental process of the brain; having phanera or qualia and subjectivity; being the ‘something that it is like' to 'have' or 'be' it; being the “inner theatre” or the executive control system of the mind.
The stream of consciousness is a metaphor describing how thoughts seem to flow through the conscious mind.

Soul

soulsspirithuman soul
Examples of the range of descriptions, definitions or explanations are: simple wakefulness, one's sense of selfhood or soul explored by "looking within", or “nothing at all”; being a metaphorical "stream" of contents, or being a mental state, mental event or mental process of the brain; having phanera or qualia and subjectivity; being the ‘something that it is like' to 'have' or 'be' it; being the “inner theatre” or the executive control system of the mind.
In metaphysics, the concept of "Soul" may be equated with that of "Mind" in order to refer to the consciousness and intellect of the individual.

Qualia

subjective experienceexperiencequale
Examples of the range of descriptions, definitions or explanations are: simple wakefulness, one's sense of selfhood or soul explored by "looking within", or “nothing at all”; being a metaphorical "stream" of contents, or being a mental state, mental event or mental process of the brain; having phanera or qualia and subjectivity; being the ‘something that it is like' to 'have' or 'be' it; being the “inner theatre” or the executive control system of the mind.
In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia ( or ; singular form: quale) are defined as individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.

Mental event

mental phenomenaBrain eventmental events
Examples of the range of descriptions, definitions or explanations are: simple wakefulness, one's sense of selfhood or soul explored by "looking within", or “nothing at all”; being a metaphorical "stream" of contents, or being a mental state, mental event or mental process of the brain; having phanera or qualia and subjectivity; being the ‘something that it is like' to 'have' or 'be' it; being the “inner theatre” or the executive control system of the mind.
A mental event is anything which happens within the mind or mind substitute of a conscious individual.

Subjectivity

subjectivesubjectivelysubjectivities
Examples of the range of descriptions, definitions or explanations are: simple wakefulness, one's sense of selfhood or soul explored by "looking within", or “nothing at all”; being a metaphorical "stream" of contents, or being a mental state, mental event or mental process of the brain; having phanera or qualia and subjectivity; being the ‘something that it is like' to 'have' or 'be' it; being the “inner theatre” or the executive control system of the mind.

Philosophy of mind

mindmental philosophyphilosophy of the mind
These issues remain central to both continental and analytic philosophy, in phenomenology and the philosophy of mind, respectively.
Aspects of the mind that are studied include mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness, the ontology of the mind, the nature of thought, and the relationship of the mind to the body.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Recently, consciousness has also become a significant topic of interdisciplinary research in cognitive science, involving fields such as psychology, linguistics, anthropology, neuropsychology and neuroscience.
Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

Hard problem of consciousness

hard problemconsciousness is independent of the brainfundamentally coherent
Some basic questions include: whether consciousness is the same kind of thing as matter; whether it may ever be possible for computing machines like computers or robots to be conscious; how consciousness relates to language; how consciousness as Being relates to the world of experience; the role of the self in experience; whether individual thought is possible at all; and whether the concept is fundamentally coherent.
The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining how and why sentient organisms have qualia or phenomenal experiences—how and why it is that some internal states are felt states, such as heat or pain, rather than unfelt states, as in a thermostat or a toaster.

John Locke

LockeLockeanJ Locke
Western philosophers since the time of Descartes and Locke have struggled to comprehend the nature of consciousness and how it fits into a larger picture of the world.
Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness.

Feeling

feelingssentimentgut feeling
Despite centuries of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial, being “at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives". Perhaps the only widely agreed notion about the topic is the intuition that it exists. Opinions differ about what exactly needs to be studied and explained as consciousness. Sometimes it is synonymous with 'the mind', other times just an aspect of mind. In the past it was one's “inner life”, the world of introspection, of private thought, imagination and volition. Today, with modern research into the brain it often includes any kind of experience, cognition, feeling or perception. It may be ‘awareness’, or 'awareness of awareness’, or self-awareness. There might be different levels or "orders" of consciousness, or different kinds of consciousness, or just one kind with different features.
In psychology, the word is usually reserved for the conscious subjective experience of emotion.

Thought

thinkingthoughtsthink
Despite centuries of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial, being “at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives". Perhaps the only widely agreed notion about the topic is the intuition that it exists. Opinions differ about what exactly needs to be studied and explained as consciousness. Sometimes it is synonymous with 'the mind', other times just an aspect of mind. In the past it was one's “inner life”, the world of introspection, of private thought, imagination and volition. Today, with modern research into the brain it often includes any kind of experience, cognition, feeling or perception. It may be ‘awareness’, or 'awareness of awareness’, or self-awareness. There might be different levels or "orders" of consciousness, or different kinds of consciousness, or just one kind with different features.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain.

Metacognition

metacognitivemeta-cognitionmeta-cognitive
Despite centuries of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial, being “at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives". Perhaps the only widely agreed notion about the topic is the intuition that it exists. Opinions differ about what exactly needs to be studied and explained as consciousness. Sometimes it is synonymous with 'the mind', other times just an aspect of mind. In the past it was one's “inner life”, the world of introspection, of private thought, imagination and volition. Today, with modern research into the brain it often includes any kind of experience, cognition, feeling or perception. It may be ‘awareness’, or 'awareness of awareness’, or self-awareness. There might be different levels or "orders" of consciousness, or different kinds of consciousness, or just one kind with different features.

Experience

experiencesexperiencedexperiential
Despite centuries of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial, being “at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives". Perhaps the only widely agreed notion about the topic is the intuition that it exists. Opinions differ about what exactly needs to be studied and explained as consciousness. Sometimes it is synonymous with 'the mind', other times just an aspect of mind. In the past it was one's “inner life”, the world of introspection, of private thought, imagination and volition. Today, with modern research into the brain it often includes any kind of experience, cognition, feeling or perception. It may be ‘awareness’, or 'awareness of awareness’, or self-awareness. There might be different levels or "orders" of consciousness, or different kinds of consciousness, or just one kind with different features.
Mental experience involves the aspect of intellect and consciousness experienced as combinations of thought, perception, memory, emotion, will and imagination, including all unconscious cognitive processes.

Delirium

deliriousconfusionAcute confusional state
In medicine, consciousness is assessed by observing a patient's arousal and responsiveness, and can be seen as a continuum of states ranging from full alertness and comprehension, through disorientation, delirium, loss of meaningful communication, and finally loss of movement in response to painful stimuli.
While requiring an acute disturbance in consciousness/attention and cognition, delirium is a syndrome encompassing an array of neuropsychiatric symptoms.

Monism

monisticmonistMonad
Proposed solutions can be divided broadly into two categories: dualist solutions that maintain Descartes' rigid distinction between the realm of consciousness and the realm of matter but give different answers for how the two realms relate to each other; and monist solutions that maintain that there is really only one realm of being, of which consciousness and matter are both aspects.
The mind–body problem in philosophy examines the relationship between mind and matter, and in particular the relationship between consciousness and the brain.

Ned Block

Block, Ned
Ned Block proposed a distinction between two types of consciousness that he called phenomenal (P-consciousness) and access (A-consciousness).
Ned Joel Block (born 1942) is an American philosopher working in philosophy of mind who has made important contributions to the understanding of consciousness and the philosophy of cognitive science.