Consent

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries

Consent occurs when one person voluntarily agrees to the proposal or desires of another.

- Consent
The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries

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Several articles written by British investigative journalist William Thomas Stead in the late 19th century on the issue of child prostitution in London led to public outrage and ultimately to the raising of the age of consent to 16.

Age of consent

Several articles written by British investigative journalist William Thomas Stead in the late 19th century on the issue of child prostitution in London led to public outrage and ultimately to the raising of the age of consent to 16.

The age of consent is the age at which a person is considered to be legally competent to consent to sexual acts.

A suspended model in a hogtie bondage. Her nipples are clamped and she is gagged with a ball gag harness

Bondage (BDSM)

A suspended model in a hogtie bondage. Her nipples are clamped and she is gagged with a ball gag harness
Tied woman lying down hogtied
Bound nude man
Frogtied woman gagged with duct tape
Man handcuffed to a bedrail, with a blindfold on
A ball-gagged model whose face is bound using bondage harness and bondage collar
Rope bondage: A gagged model bound in an uncomfortable position using breast bondage and crotch ropes
A woman wearing a steel collar and steel handcuffs.
Petplay: Woman bound outdoor using a dog's chain, at the Folsom Street Fair.
Bondage demonstration at the 2003 Folsom Street Fair
Multiple knots being tied by a male bondage rigger, so as to ensure a strong rope bondage.
A woman wearing an armbinder
A woman chained to a Saint Andrew's cross
Two women mummified with duct tape, restraining their entire bodies, at Exxxotica 2013
A Shibari expert weaves a rope on a woman's upper body at Venus Berlin, 2019.
Two women in frogtie bondage
A male bondage rigger demonstrates to the audience how to do rope bondage at the 2015 BoundCon event in Germany. The bondage technique used here is box tie, a basic form of arm and breast bondage.
A leather dog mask worn over a latex coat.
Erotic pose of three women in bondage gear
Bondage with fluorescent ropes

Bondage, in the BDSM subculture, is the practice of consensually tying, binding, or restraining a partner for erotic, aesthetic, or somatosensory stimulation.

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries

Implied consent

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries

Implied consent is consent which is not expressly granted by a person, but rather implicitly granted by a person's actions and the facts and circumstances of a particular situation (or in some cases, by a person's silence or inaction).

In Zambia, 43% of girls and women between the ages of 15 and 49 have experienced some form of sexual violence.

Rape

[[File:Comprehensive Scale of Rape (2018) - LRW-SCALE-11.svg|thumb|A map of the world showing a composite index about rape of women in 2018, data by WomanStats Project.

[[File:Comprehensive Scale of Rape (2018) - LRW-SCALE-11.svg|thumb|A map of the world showing a composite index about rape of women in 2018, data by WomanStats Project.

In Zambia, 43% of girls and women between the ages of 15 and 49 have experienced some form of sexual violence.
In this Roman depiction of a fight between a Nymph and a Satyr (Naples National Archaeological Museum), the Nymph is shown vigorously resisting the Satyr's sexual advances, punching him on the mouth – an example of the idealized female resistance, lack of which might be construed as implying consent.
Non-genital injuries to women who are sexually assaulted
frameless
UNODC : Reported rape per 100,000 population (2011)
People in Bangalore, India demanding justice for a young student who was gang-raped in Delhi in December 2012.
The Bulgarian martyresses, a painting depicting the rape of Bulgarian women by Ottoman troops during the April Uprising of 1876

Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.

Legal systems of the world. Common law countries are in several shades of pink, corresponding to variations in common law systems.

Defense (legal)

Attempt to avoid civil liability or criminal conviction.

Attempt to avoid civil liability or criminal conviction.

Legal systems of the world. Common law countries are in several shades of pink, corresponding to variations in common law systems.

Volenti non fit injuria – consent by the victim or plaintiff.

General Data Protection Regulation

Regulation in EU law on data protection and privacy in the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA).

Regulation in EU law on data protection and privacy in the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA).

No personal data may be processed unless this processing is done under one of the six lawful bases specified by the regulation (consent, contract, public task, vital interest, legitimate interest or legal requirement).

Example of informed consent document from the PARAMOUNT trial

Informed consent

Principle in medical ethics and medical law that a patient should have sufficient information before making their own free decisions about their medical care.

Principle in medical ethics and medical law that a patient should have sufficient information before making their own free decisions about their medical care.

Example of informed consent document from the PARAMOUNT trial
In this Ottoman Empire document from 1539 a father promises to not sue a surgeon in case of death following the removal of his son's urinary stones.

A health care provider may ask a patient to consent to receive therapy before providing it, a clinical researcher may ask a research participant before enrolling that person into a clinical trial, and a researcher may ask a research participant before starting some form of controlled experiment.

Human subject research

Systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects, commonly known as test subjects.

Systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects, commonly known as test subjects.

They were often performed illegally, without the knowledge, consent, or informed consent of the test subjects.

Legal systems of the world. Civil law based systems are in turquoise.

Tort

Civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm, resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.

Civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm, resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.

Legal systems of the world. Civil law based systems are in turquoise.

Consent and warning: Typically, a victim cannot hold another liable if the victim has implicitly or explicitly consented to engage in a risky activity. This is frequently summarised by the maxim "volenti non fit injuria" (Latin: "to a willing person, no injury is done" or "no injury is done to a person who consents"). In many cases, those engaging in risky activities will be asked to sign a waiver releasing another party from liability. For example, spectators to certain sports are assumed to accept a risk of injury, such as a hockey puck or baseball striking a member of the audience. Warnings by the defendant may also provide a defence depending upon the jurisdiction and circumstances. This issue arises, for example, in the duty of care that landowners have for guests or trespasses, known as occupiers' liability.

Volenti non fit injuria

Not done") is a common law doctrine which states that if someone willingly places themselves in a position where harm might result, knowing that some degree of harm might result, they are not able to bring a claim against the other party in tort or delict.

Not done") is a common law doctrine which states that if someone willingly places themselves in a position where harm might result, knowing that some degree of harm might result, they are not able to bring a claim against the other party in tort or delict.

In this context, volenti can be distinguished from legal consent in that the latter can prevent some torts arising in the first place.