Conservative Judaism

The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, the main rabbinical seminary of Conservative Judaism
Morning service in synagogue Adath Israel, Merion Station, Pennsylvania
Memorial service of B'nai Israel Congregation (Rockville, Maryland)
A mixed-gender, egalitarian Conservative service at Robinson's Arch, Western Wall
Women rabbis, Israel
Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies at American Jewish University
Rabbi Zecharias Frankel
Frankel's speech in the protocol of the Frankfurt conference, mentioning "Positive-Historical Judaism" (second row, 2–4 words from left)
Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau
Alexander Kohut
Solomon Schechter
East Midwood Jewish Center, a United Synagogue affiliate built in 1926, during the early years of the union
The Conservative Congregation Shaarey Zedek, Southfield, Michigan. The synagogue was built in 1962, after the migration to suburbia
Chancellor Louis Finkelstein (left), the dominant leader of JTS from 1940 to 1972.

Jewish religious movement that regards the authority of Jewish law and tradition as emanating primarily from the assent of the people and the community through the generations, more than from divine revelation.

- Conservative Judaism
The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, the main rabbinical seminary of Conservative Judaism

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Reconstructing Judaism's organizational headquarters in Wyncote, Pennsylvania

Reconstructionist Judaism

Jewish movement that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization rather than a religion, based on concepts developed by Mordecai Kaplan .

Jewish movement that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization rather than a religion, based on concepts developed by Mordecai Kaplan .

Reconstructing Judaism's organizational headquarters in Wyncote, Pennsylvania

The movement originated as a semi-organized stream within Conservative Judaism and developed from the late 1920s to 1940s, before it seceded in 1955 and established a rabbinical college in 1967.

Zecharias Frankel

Bohemian-German rabbi and a historian who studied the historical development of Judaism.

Bohemian-German rabbi and a historian who studied the historical development of Judaism.

This school of thought was the intellectual progenitor of Conservative Judaism.

''A set of tefillin includes the arm-tefillah (left)
and the head-tefillah''

Tefillin

Tefillin (Israeli Hebrew: תְּפִלִּין / תְּפִילִּין; Askhenazic pronunciation: ) or phylacteries, are a set of small black leather boxes with leather straps containing scrolls of parchment inscribed with verses from the Torah.

Tefillin (Israeli Hebrew: תְּפִלִּין / תְּפִילִּין; Askhenazic pronunciation: ) or phylacteries, are a set of small black leather boxes with leather straps containing scrolls of parchment inscribed with verses from the Torah.

''A set of tefillin includes the arm-tefillah (left)
and the head-tefillah''
"Totafot" between your eyes: Ashkenazi Head Tefillin, Jerusalem, Israel
Leather moulded into shape for the head-tefillin
The single scroll of the arm-tefillin
A Jewish woman praying with a tallit and tefillin
Praying with Tefellin at top of Pequeño Alpamayo (elevation 5330 m)
Arm-tefillin with ש (shin) pattern, according to one of the Ashkenazi opinions
Israel Defense Forces soldier Asael Lubotzky prays with tefillin.
Tefillin wrapping custom of the Rodrigues-Pereira family

In Orthodox and traditional communities, they are worn solely by men, while some Reform and Conservative (Masorti) communities allow them to be worn by both men and women.

The Samaritans on Mount Gerizim

Jewish religious movements

Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations", include different groups within Judaism which have developed among Jews from ancient times.

Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations", include different groups within Judaism which have developed among Jews from ancient times.

The Samaritans on Mount Gerizim
In central Karaite synagogue, Ramla
Torah reading Sephardic custom
A Yemenite Jew in traditional vestments under the tallit gadol, reading from a Torah scroll
Hasidim
Orthodox men during morning Torah reading at the Western Wall
Birkat Hachama of Conservative Jews, Encino, Los Angeles
Reform Jewish service with mixed sitting
IDF soldier, Asael Lubotzky prays with tefillin
Naturei Karta protest, USA
Beta Israel celebrating Sigd, Jerusalem
Igbo Jews, Nigeria, presented with a plaque
Inside Reconstructionist synagogue, Montreal
Purim of Messianic Jews, Saint-Petersburg

Today, the main division is between the "traditional" branches of Judaism (Orthodox and Conservative) and the more modern Reform, with several smaller movements alongside each.

Jewish Theological Seminary of America

JTS building at 3080 Broadway in Manhattan

The Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS) is a Conservative Jewish education organization in New York City, New York.

A full set of the Babylonian Talmud

Halakha

Collective body of Jewish religious laws which is derived from the written and Oral Torah.

Collective body of Jewish religious laws which is derived from the written and Oral Torah.

A full set of the Babylonian Talmud
Sefer Torah at Glockengasse Synagogue (museum exhibits), Cologne
Hasidim walk to the synagogue, Rehovot, Israel.
A mixed-gender, egalitarian Conservative service at Robinson's Arch, Western Wall
Set of Mishneh Torah
Shulchan Aruch HaRav
Peninei Halakha Set
An illuminated manuscript of Arba'ah Turim from 1435

Within Conservative Judaism, the Rabbinical Assembly has an official Committee on Jewish Law and Standards.

The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, the main rabbinical seminary of Conservative Judaism

Elliot N. Dorff

The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, the main rabbinical seminary of Conservative Judaism

Elliot N. Dorff (born 24 June 1943) is an American Conservative rabbi.

Prophet Amos as depicted by Gustave Doré

Jews as the chosen people

Belief that the Jews, via descent from the ancient Israelites, are the chosen people, i.e. selected to be in a covenant with God.

Belief that the Jews, via descent from the ancient Israelites, are the chosen people, i.e. selected to be in a covenant with God.

Prophet Amos as depicted by Gustave Doré
Monument to Maimonides in Córdoba, Spain
The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, the main rabbinical seminary of Conservative Judaism
Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the "Lubavitcher Rebbe"
Tractatus Theologico-Politicus
Artist's depiction of Saint Paul Writing His Epistles, 16th century (Blaffer Foundation Collection, Houston, Texas). Paul was the first major figure in Christian history to hold that Jewish law is no longer valid.

The three largest Jewish denominations—Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism—maintain the belief that the Jews have been chosen by God for a purpose.

Toledot HaPoskim, History of the Jewish Codes, by Chaim Tchernowitz.

Posek

Term in Jewish law for a "decisor", a legal scholar who determines the position of halakha, the Jewish religious laws derived from the written and Oral Torah in cases of Jewish law where previous authorities are inconclusive, or in those situations where no clear halakhic precedent exists.

Term in Jewish law for a "decisor", a legal scholar who determines the position of halakha, the Jewish religious laws derived from the written and Oral Torah in cases of Jewish law where previous authorities are inconclusive, or in those situations where no clear halakhic precedent exists.

Toledot HaPoskim, History of the Jewish Codes, by Chaim Tchernowitz.

Conservative Judaism approaches the idea of posek, and Halakha in general, somewhat differently: poskim here apply a relatively lower weighting to precedent, and will thus frequently re-interpret (or even change) a previous ruling through a formal argument; see Conservative Halakha.

Solomon Schechter

The late Solomon Schechter (1912/1913), etching by Hermann Struck

Solomon Schechter (שניאור זלמן הכהן שכטר‎; 7 December 1847 – 19 November 1915) was a Moldavian-born American rabbi, academic scholar and educator, most famous for his roles as founder and President of the United Synagogue of America, President of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, and architect of American Conservative Judaism.