Constantine the Great

Constantine IConstantineEmperor ConstantineEmperor Constantine IConstantinianSaint ConstantineConstantine I the GreatEmperor Constantine the GreatSt. ConstantineConstantinus
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; ; 27 February c. undefined AD 272 – 22 May AD 337), also known as Constantine I, was a Roman Emperor who ruled between AD 306 and 337.wikipedia
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Niš

NaissusNiš, SerbiaNish
Born in Naissus, in Dacia Ripensis, the city now known as Niš (, located in Serbia), he was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer of Illyrian origins.
Founded by the Celtic Scordisci in 279 BC, the city would serve as the birthplace of three Roman emperors: Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor and the founder of Constantinople; Constantius III; and Justin I.

Roman emperor

EmperoremperorsWestern Roman Emperor
undefined AD 272 – 22 May AD 337), also known as Constantine I, was a Roman Emperor who ruled between AD 306 and 337.
The peaceful reign of Constantine the Great, the first to openly convert to Christianity and allowing freedom of religion, witnessed the replacement of the Caput Mundi from Rome to Constantinople.

Praetorian prefect

prefectpraefectus praetorioPrefect of the Praetorian Guard
He restructured the government, separating civil and military authorities.
Under Constantine I, the office was much reduced in power and transformed into a purely civilian administrative post, while under his successors, territorially-defined praetorian prefectures emerged as the highest-level administrative division of the Empire.

Magister militum

magister peditummagister militum per Orientemmagistri militum
He restructured the government, separating civil and military authorities.
Magister militum (Latin for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine the Great.

Licinius

Emperor LiciniusValerius LiciniusLicinius I
He emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by AD 324.
For most of his reign he was the colleague and rival of Constantine I, with whom he co-authored the Edict of Milan (AD 313) that granted official toleration to Christians in the Roman Empire.

Serbia

SRBRepublic of SerbiaSerbian
Born in Naissus, in Dacia Ripensis, the city now known as Niš (, located in Serbia), he was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer of Illyrian origins.
The most famous of these was Constantine the Great, the first Christian Emperor, who issued an edict ordering religious tolerance throughout the Empire.

Solidus (coin)

solidisolidussou
To combat inflation he introduced the solidus, a new gold coin that became the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for more than a thousand years.
Under Constantine, who introduced it on a wide scale, it had a weight of about 4.5 grams.

Constantine the Great and Christianity

ConstantineConstantine I and ChristianityConstantine I
Constantine was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity.
During the reign of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great (AD 306–337), Christianity began to transition to the dominant religion of the Roman Empire.

Maxentius

Marcus Aurelius Valerius MaxentiusImp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maxentius AugustusMarcus Aurelius Valerius ''Maxentius'' Augustus
He emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by AD 324.
The latter part of his reign was preoccupied with civil war, allying with Maximinus II against Licinius and Constantine.

Christianity

ChristianChristiansChristian faith
Constantine was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity.
Emperor Constantine the Great converted to Christianity before his death (337), and was baptized by bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia; Constantine decriminalized Christianity in the Roman Empire by the Edict of Milan (313), later convening the Council of Nicaea (325) where Early Christianity was consolidated into what would become the State church of the Roman Empire (380).

Praetorian prefecture

praetorian prefecturesPrefecturepraetorian prefect
He restructured the government, separating civil and military authorities.
Praetorian prefectures originated in the reign of Constantine I (r.

Eusebius of Nicomedia

EusebiusEusebiansbishop Eusebius of Nicomedia
Although he lived much of his life as a pagan, and later as a catechumen, he joined the Christian faith on his deathbed, being baptised by Eusebius of Nicomedia.
Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341) was the man who baptised Constantine the Great.

First Council of Nicaea

Council of NicaeaFirst Ecumenical CouncilNicaea
He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, which produced the statement of Christian belief known as the Nicene Creed.
The First Council of Nicaea was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.

York

City of YorkYork, EnglandYork, North Yorkshire
Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum (modern-day York) after his father's death in AD 306.
Constantius I died in 306 AD during his stay in York, and his son Constantine the Great was proclaimed Emperor by the troops based in the fortress.

Edict of Milan

Edict of Constantineofficial toleration of Christianity313
He played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan in 313, which declared religious tolerance for Christianity in the Roman empire.
Western Roman Emperor Constantine I and Emperor Licinius, who controlled the Balkans, met in Mediolanum (modern-day Milan) and, among other things, agreed to change policies towards Christians following the Edict of Toleration issued by Emperor Galerius two years earlier in Serdica.

Diocletian

Emperor DiocletianDiocletian ReformsDiocletianus
Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius. His more immediate political legacy was that he replaced Diocletian's tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession by leaving the empire to his sons. Lactantius' De Mortibus Persecutorum, a political Christian pamphlet on the reigns of Diocletian and the Tetrarchy, provides valuable but tendentious detail on Constantine's predecessors and early life.
The Diocletianic Persecution (303–312), the empire's last, largest, and bloodiest official persecution of Christianity, failed to eliminate Christianity in the empire; indeed, after 324, Christianity became the empire's preferred religion under Constantine.

Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanConstantinopolisConstantinopole
He built a new imperial residence at Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople (now Istanbul) after himself (the laudatory epithet of "New Rome" came later, and was never an official title).
In 324 ancient Byzantium became the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was renamed, and dedicated on 11 May 330.

Donation of Constantine

ConstitutumDonatio Constantiniforged documents
The Papal claim to temporal power in the High Middle Ages was based on the forged Donation of Constantine.
The Donation of Constantine is a forged Roman imperial decree (Diplom) by which the 4th-century emperor Constantine the Great supposedly transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope.

Franks

FrankishFrankFrankish kingdom
Constantine pursued successful campaigns against the tribes on the Roman frontiers—the Franks, the Alamanni, the Goths, and the Sarmatians—even resettling territories abandoned by his predecessors during the Crisis of the Third Century.
Eumenius addressed the Franks in the matter of the execution of Frankish prisoners in the circus at Trier by Constantine I in 306 and certain other measures: Ubi nunc est illa ferocia?

Istanbul

İstanbulConstantinopleIstanbul, Turkey
He built a new imperial residence at Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople (now Istanbul) after himself (the laudatory epithet of "New Rome" came later, and was never an official title).
After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became widely known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις" (Konstantinoúpolis), means the "City of Constantine".

Tetrarchy

tetrarchTetrarchstetrarchic
His more immediate political legacy was that he replaced Diocletian's tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession by leaving the empire to his sons. Lactantius' De Mortibus Persecutorum, a political Christian pamphlet on the reigns of Diocletian and the Tetrarchy, provides valuable but tendentious detail on Constantine's predecessors and early life.
This tetrarchy lasted until c. 313, when mutually destructive civil wars eliminated most of the claimants to power, leaving Constantine in control of the western half of the empire, and Licinius in control of the eastern half.

Caesar (title)

CaesarCaesarsKayser-i Rûm
His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in AD 293.
The title of Caesar remained in use throughout the Constantinian period, with both Constantine I and his co-emperor and rival Licinius utilising it to mark their heirs.

Lactantius

Lucius Caecilius Firmianus LactantiusDe mortibus persecutorumFirmianus (Lactantius)
Lactantius' De Mortibus Persecutorum, a political Christian pamphlet on the reigns of Diocletian and the Tetrarchy, provides valuable but tendentious detail on Constantine's predecessors and early life.
250 – c. 325) was an early Christian author who became an advisor to the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding his religious policy as it developed, and a tutor to his son Crispus.

Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Holy SepulchreChurch of the Holy Sepulchertomb
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was built on his orders at the purported site of Jesus' tomb in Jerusalem and became the holiest place in Christendom.
After seeing a vision of a cross in the sky in 312, Constantine the Great converted to Christianity, signed the Edict of Milan legalising the religion, and sent his mother Helena to Jerusalem to look for Christ's tomb.

Athanasius of Alexandria

AthanasiusSaint AthanasiusSt. Athanasius
The contemporary writings of the orthodox Christian Athanasius and the ecclesiastical history of the Arian Philostorgius also survive, though their biases are no less firm.
Roman emperor Constantine the Great had convened the council in May–August 325 to address the Arian position that the Son of God, Jesus of Nazareth, is of a distinct substance from the Father.