Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanConstantinopolisConstantinopoleIstanbulByzantiumcapitalcity of ConstantineConstantinopelConstantinople, Ottoman EmpireConstantinopol
Constantinople (Cōnstantīnopolis) was the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire (395–1204 and 1261–1453), of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261) and of the Ottoman Empire (1453–1923).wikipedia
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Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
Constantinople (Cōnstantīnopolis) was the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire (395–1204 and 1261–1453), of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261) and of the Ottoman Empire (1453–1923).
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern Istanbul, formerly Byzantium).

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
Constantinople (Cōnstantīnopolis) was the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire (395–1204 and 1261–1453), of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261) and of the Ottoman Empire (1453–1923).
Although fragmented briefly during the military crisis, the empire was forcibly reassembled, then ruled by multiple emperors who shared rule over the Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and the Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople.

Ankara

AncyraAnkara, TurkeyAngora
In 1923 the capital of Turkey, the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, was moved to Ankara and the name Constantinople was officially changed to Istanbul; the city is still referred to as Constantinople in Greek-speaking sources.
Ankara became the new Turkish capital upon the establishment of the Republic on 29 October 1923, succeeding in this role the former Turkish capital Istanbul (Constantinople) following the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

Patriarchate of ConstantinopleChurch of ConstantinopleEcumenical Patriarchate
The city became famous for its architectural masterpieces, such as Hagia Sophia, the cathedral of the Eastern Orthodox Church, which served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of the Land Walls, and the opulent aristocratic palaces lining the arcaded avenues and squares.
Because of its historical location as the capital of the former Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and its role as the Mother Church of most modern Orthodox churches, Constantinople holds a special place of honor within Orthodoxy and serves as the seat for the Ecumenical Patriarch, who enjoys the status of primus inter pares (first among equals) among the world's Eastern Orthodox prelates and is regarded as the representative and spiritual leader of the world's 300 million Orthodox Christians.

Capital city

Capitaladministrative centerDistrict seat
Constantinople (Cōnstantīnopolis) was the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire (395–1204 and 1261–1453), of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261) and of the Ottoman Empire (1453–1923).
(The modern capital city has, however, not always existed: in medieval Western Europe, an itinerant (wandering) government was common.) Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Chang'an, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, Lisbon and Berlin.

Byzantium

ByzantineByzantionByzantine Empire
In 324 ancient Byzantium became the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was renamed, and dedicated on 11 May 330. Constantinople was founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine I (272–337) in 324 on the site of an already-existing city, Byzantium, which was settled in the early days of Greek colonial expansion, in around 657 BC, by colonists of the city-state of Megara.
Byzantium ( or Byzantion; Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and then Istanbul.

Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople

Patriarch of ConstantinopleEcumenical PatriarchPatriarch
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times as the home of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and as the guardian of Christendom's holiest relics such as the Crown of thorns and the True Cross.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch"; Konstantinopolis ekümenik patriği; Ottoman Turkish: patrik, Patriarche de Constantinople) is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Hippodrome of Constantinople

HippodromeSultanahmet Squarecity hippodrome
The city became famous for its architectural masterpieces, such as Hagia Sophia, the cathedral of the Eastern Orthodox Church, which served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of the Land Walls, and the opulent aristocratic palaces lining the arcaded avenues and squares.
The Hippodrome of Constantinople was a circus that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.

University of Constantinople

PandidakterionMagnaura SchoolUniversity
The University of Constantinople was founded in the fifth century and contained numerous artistic and literary treasures before it was sacked in 1204 and 1453, including its vast Imperial Library which contained the remnants of the Library of Alexandria and had over 100,000 volumes of ancient texts.
The Imperial University of Constantinople, sometimes known as the University of the Palace Hall of Magnaura, can trace its corporate origins to 425 AD, when the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) emperor Theodosius II founded the Pandidakterion .

Imperial Library of Constantinople

Library of ConstantinopleConstantinopleImperial Library
The University of Constantinople was founded in the fifth century and contained numerous artistic and literary treasures before it was sacked in 1204 and 1453, including its vast Imperial Library which contained the remnants of the Library of Alexandria and had over 100,000 volumes of ancient texts.
The Imperial Library of Constantinople, in the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, was the last of the great libraries of the ancient world.

Latin Empire

Latin Empire of ConstantinopleLatin EmperorLatins
Constantinople (Cōnstantīnopolis) was the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire (395–1204 and 1261–1453), of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261) and of the Ottoman Empire (1453–1923).
When the crusaders reached Constantinople the situation quickly turned volatile and while Isaac and Alexios briefly ruled, the crusaders did not receive the payment they had hoped for.

Great Palace of Constantinople

Great Palaceimperial palaceGrand Palace
The city became famous for its architectural masterpieces, such as Hagia Sophia, the cathedral of the Eastern Orthodox Church, which served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of the Land Walls, and the opulent aristocratic palaces lining the arcaded avenues and squares.
The Great Palace of Constantinople (Μέγα Παλάτιον, Méga Palátion; Latin: Palatium Magnum, Turkish: Büyük Saray), also known as the Sacred Palace (Ἱερὸν Παλάτιον, Hieròn Palátion; Latin: Sacrum Palatium), was the large Imperial Byzantine palace complex located in the south-eastern end of the peninsula now known as Old Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), in modern Turkey.

Fall of Constantinople

conquest of Constantinoplesiege of ConstantinopleConstantinople
By the early 15th century, the Byzantine Empire was reduced to just Constantinople and its environs, along with Morea in Greece, making it an enclave inside the Ottoman Empire; after a 53-day siege the city eventually fell to the Ottomans, led by Sultan Mehmed II, on 29 May 1453, whereafter it replaced Edirne (Adrianople) as the new capital of the Ottoman Empire.
The Fall of Constantinople (undefined) was the capture of the capital city of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.

Turkey

TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
In 1923 the capital of Turkey, the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, was moved to Ankara and the name Constantinople was officially changed to Istanbul; the city is still referred to as Constantinople in Greek-speaking sources.
Following the death of Theodosius I in 395 and the permanent division of the Roman Empire between his two sons, the city, which would popularly come to be known as Constantinople, became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.

Fourth Crusade

CrusadersCrusaderFourth
In 1204, however, the armies of the Fourth Crusade took and devastated the city, and its inhabitants lived several decades under Latin misrule.
In January 1203, en route to Jerusalem, the Crusader leadership entered into an agreement with the Byzantine prince Alexios Angelos to divert the Crusade to Constantinople and restore his deposed father as emperor.

Theodosius II

Theodosius the YoungerTheodosiusEmperor Theodosius II
Later, in the 5th century, the Praetorian prefect Anthemius under the child emperor Theodosius II undertook the construction of the Theodosian Walls, which consisted of a double wall lying about 2 km to the west of the first wall and a moat with palisades in front.
He is mostly known for promulgating the Theodosian law code, and for the construction of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople.

Hagia Sophia

Haghia SophiaHagia Sophia MosqueAyasofya
The city became famous for its architectural masterpieces, such as Hagia Sophia, the cathedral of the Eastern Orthodox Church, which served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of the Land Walls, and the opulent aristocratic palaces lining the arcaded avenues and squares.
Although some parts of the city of Constantinople had fallen into disrepair, the cathedral had been maintained with funds set aside for this purpose, and the Christian cathedral made a strong impression on the new Ottoman rulers who conceived its conversion.

Palaiologos

PalaiologoiPalaiologan dynastyPalaeologian dynasty
In 1261 the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos liberated the city, and after the restoration under the Palaiologos dynasty, enjoyed a partial recovery.
In 1261, forces loyal to Michael recaptured Constantinople, which had been under the occupation of the Latin Empire since the Fourth Crusade sacked the city in 1204, and Michael VIII was crowned in the Hagia Sophia as sole emperor.

Praetorian prefect

prefectpraefectus praetorioPrefect of the Praetorian Guard
Later, in the 5th century, the Praetorian prefect Anthemius under the child emperor Theodosius II undertook the construction of the Theodosian Walls, which consisted of a double wall lying about 2 km to the west of the first wall and a moat with palisades in front.
Each praetorian prefect oversaw one of the four quarters created by Diocletian, which became regional praetorian prefectures for the young sons of Constantine ca 330 A.D. From 395 there two imperial courts, at Rome (later Ravenna) and Constantinople, but the four prefectures remained as the highest level of administrative division, in charge of several dioceses (groups of Roman provinces), each of which was headed by a Vicarius.

Constantine the Great

Constantine IConstantineEmperor Constantine
In 324 ancient Byzantium became the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was renamed, and dedicated on 11 May 330. Constantinople was founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine I (272–337) in 324 on the site of an already-existing city, Byzantium, which was settled in the early days of Greek colonial expansion, in around 657 BC, by colonists of the city-state of Megara.
He built a new imperial residence at Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople (now Istanbul) after himself (the laudatory epithet of "New Rome" came later, and was never an official title).

Golden Horn

Haliç HaliçAlibeyköy Creek
Because it was located between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara the land area that needed defensive walls was reduced, and this helped it to present an impregnable fortress enclosing magnificent palaces, domes, and towers, the result of the prosperity it achieved from being the gateway between two continents (Europe and Asia) and two seas (the Mediterranean and the Black Sea).
As a natural estuary that connects with the Bosphorus Strait at the point where the strait meets the Sea of Marmara, the waters of the Golden Horn help define the northern boundary of the peninsula constituting "Old Istanbul" (ancient Byzantium and Constantinople), the tip of which is the promontory of Sarayburnu, or Seraglio Point.

Tsargrad

TsarigradCzargradCarigrad
In East and South Slavic languages, including in medieval Russia, Constantinople has been referred to as Tsargrad or Carigrad, 'City of the Caesar (Emperor)', from the Slavonic words tsar ('Caesar' or 'King') and grad ('city').
Tsargrad is a Slavic name for the city or land of Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, and present-day Istanbul in Turkey.

Roman emperor

EmperoremperorsWestern Roman Emperor
Constantinople was founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine I (272–337) in 324 on the site of an already-existing city, Byzantium, which was settled in the early days of Greek colonial expansion, in around 657 BC, by colonists of the city-state of Megara.
The peaceful reign of Constantine the Great, the first to openly convert to Christianity and allowing freedom of religion, witnessed the replacement of the Caput Mundi from Rome to Constantinople.

Galata Tower

Galata Kulesi
The city became famous for its architectural masterpieces, such as Hagia Sophia, the cathedral of the Eastern Orthodox Church, which served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of the Land Walls, and the opulent aristocratic palaces lining the arcaded avenues and squares.
It is a high, cone-capped cylinder that dominates the skyline and offers a panoramic vista of Istanbul's historic peninsula and its environs.

Crown of thorns

crowned with thornsCrowning with Thornscrowns of thorns
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times as the home of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and as the guardian of Christendom's holiest relics such as the Crown of thorns and the True Cross.
In 1238, Baldwin II, the Latin Emperor of Constantinople, anxious to obtain support for his tottering empire, offered the crown of thorns to Louis IX, King of France.