A report on Constipation

Constipation in a young child seen on X-ray. Circles represent areas of fecal matter (stool is white surrounded by black bowel gas).
Bristol stool chart
Significant constipation in the plain X-ray of an 8-year-old
19th century satirical cartoon of a monkey rejecting an old style clyster for a new design, filled with marshmallow and opium

Bowel dysfunction that makes bowel movements infrequent or hard to pass.

- Constipation
Constipation in a young child seen on X-ray. Circles represent areas of fecal matter (stool is white surrounded by black bowel gas).

52 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Drawing of the pain of IBS

Irritable bowel syndrome

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Functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by a group of symptoms accompanied together that include abdominal pain and changes in the consistency of bowel movements.

Functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by a group of symptoms accompanied together that include abdominal pain and changes in the consistency of bowel movements.

Drawing of the pain of IBS
Prevalence of protozoal infections in industrialized countries (United States and Canada) in the 21st century
Percentage of population with IBS reported in various studies in different countries (see sources in the table)

It has been classified into four main types depending on whether diarrhea is common, constipation is common, both are common (mixed/alternating), or neither occurs very often (IBS-D, IBS-C, IBS-M/IBS-A, or IBS-U, respectively).

Glycerin suppositories used as laxatives.

Laxative

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Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.

Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.

Glycerin suppositories used as laxatives.

They are used to treat and prevent constipation.

Anismus

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Failure of normal relaxation of pelvic floor muscles during attempted defecation.

Failure of normal relaxation of pelvic floor muscles during attempted defecation.

Stylized diagram showing action of the puborectalis sling, and the formation of the anorectal angle. A-puborectalis, B-rectum, C-level of anorectal ring and anorectal angle, D-anal canal, E-anal verge, F-representation of internal and external anal sphincters, G-coccyx & sacrum, H-pubic symphysis, I-Ischium, J-pubic bone.

Symptoms include tenesmus (the sensation of incomplete emptying of the rectum after defecation has occurred) and constipation.

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.

Opioid

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Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.
US. Top line represents the number of benzodiazepine deaths that also involved opioids. Bottom line represents benzodiazepine deaths that did not involve opioids.
Locants of the morphine molecule
INTA: selective agonist of KOR-DOR and KOR-MOR heteromers. Does not recruit β-arrestin II. Antinociceptive devoid of aversion, tolerance, and dependence in mice.
A sample of raw opium
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving other, predominately Fentanyl.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

Side effects of opioids may include itchiness, sedation, nausea, respiratory depression, constipation, and euphoria.

Diagram demonstrating the anatomy of both internal and external hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoid

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Hemorrhoids (or haemorrhoids), also known as piles, are vascular structures in the anal canal.

Hemorrhoids (or haemorrhoids), also known as piles, are vascular structures in the anal canal.

Diagram demonstrating the anatomy of both internal and external hemorrhoids
An external hemorrhoid
Gross pathology of hemorrhoids, showing engorged blood vessels.
A thrombosed external hemorrhoid
An 11th-century English miniature. On the right is an operation to remove hemorrhoids.

This may include constipation, diarrhea, and sitting on the toilet for a long time.

Diagram of stomach, intestines and rectum in the average human

Gastrointestinal tract

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Tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus.

Tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus.

Diagram of stomach, intestines and rectum in the average human
Illustration of the small intestine

Constipation, which refers to the passage of fewer and hardened stools

Foods rich in fibers: fruits, vegetables and grains

Dietary fiber

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Portion of plant-derived food that cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzymes.

Portion of plant-derived food that cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzymes.

Foods rich in fibers: fruits, vegetables and grains
Wheat bran has a high content of dietary fiber.
Children eating fiber-rich food

Soluble fiber supplements may be beneficial for alleviating symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, such as diarrhea or constipation and abdominal discomfort.

Functional constipation

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Functional constipation, known as chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), is constipation that does not have a physical (anatomical) or physiological (hormonal or other body chemistry) cause.

Plain abdominal X-ray showing a huge fecal impaction extending from the pelvis upwards to the left subphrenic space and from the left towards the right flank, measuring over 40 cm in length and 33 cm in width.

Fecal impaction

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Plain abdominal X-ray showing a huge fecal impaction extending from the pelvis upwards to the left subphrenic space and from the left towards the right flank, measuring over 40 cm in length and 33 cm in width.

A fecal impaction is a solid, immobile bulk of feces that can develop in the rectum as a result of chronic constipation.

Molecular structure of thyroxine, the deficiency of which causes the symptoms of hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism

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Disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

Disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

Molecular structure of thyroxine, the deficiency of which causes the symptoms of hypothyroidism
Symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism
Diagram of the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis. The hypothalamus secretes TRH (green), which stimulates the production of TSH (red) by the pituitary gland. This, in turn, stimulates the production of thyroxine by the thyroid (blue). Thyroxine levels decrease TRH and TSH production by a negative feedback process.
A 3-month-old infant with untreated congenital hypothyroidism showing myxedematous facies, a big tongue, and skin mottling
Characteristic changes in the facial skin of a Labrador Retriever with hypothyroidism

It can cause a number of symptoms, such as poor ability to tolerate cold, a feeling of tiredness, constipation, slow heart rate, depression, and weight gain.