Constitution

constitutionalconstitutionsconstitutional governmentsupreme lawwritten constitutioncodified constitutionfundamental lawgoverning documentfounding documentThe Constitution
A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity, and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.wikipedia
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Law

legallawslegal theory
A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity, and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.
The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein.

Constitutional amendment

amendmentamendmentsconstitutional reform
The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any country in the world, containing 444 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules and 124 amendments, with 146,385 words in its English-language version.
A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution of a polity, organization or other type of entity.

Fundamental rights

fundamental rightfundamental freedomsbasic rights
Some constitutions, especially codified constitutions, also act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a state's rulers cannot cross, such as fundamental rights.
These rights are specifically identified in the Constitution, or have been found under Due Process of law.

Apostolic constitution

apostolic briefdogmatic constitutionapostolic
Later, the term was widely used in canon law for an important determination, especially a decree issued by the Pope, now referred to as an apostolic constitution.
The use of the term constitution comes from Latin constitutio, which referred to any important law issued by the Roman emperor, and is retained in church documents because of the inheritance that the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church received from Roman law.

Judicial review

judicial oversightreviewjudicially reviewed
Action that appears to be beyond power may be judicially reviewed and, if found to be beyond power, must cease.
A court with authority for judicial review may invalidate laws, acts and governmental actions that are incompatible with a higher authority: an executive decision may be invalidated for being unlawful or a statute may be invalidated for violating the terms of a constitution.

Government

Form of governmentgovernmentsgovernmental
After that, many governments ruled by special codes of written laws.
Each government has a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing principles and philosophy.

State (polity)

statestatesthe state
Within states, a constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are made and by whom.
A federated state is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.

Constitutionalism

constitutionalistConstitutionalistsconstitutional
Aristotle (ca 350 BC) was the first to make a formal distinction between ordinary law and constitutional law, establishing ideas of constitution and constitutionalism, and attempting to classify different forms of constitutional government.
Then in carrying the story forward, he identifies revolutionary declarations and constitutions, documents and judicial decisions of the Confederation period and the formation of the federal Constitution.

Zakonopravilo

St. Sava's NomocanonNomocanon of Saint Sava (''Zakonopravilo'')the oldest known constitution
St. Sava's Nomocanon was the compilation of Civil law, based on Roman Law and Canon law, based on Ecumenical Councils and its basic purpose was to organize functioning of the young Serbian kingdom and the Serbian church.
The Nomocanon of Saint Sava, known in Serbian as Zakonopravilo or Krmčija, was the first Serbian constitution and the highest code in the Serbian Orthodox Church, finished in 1219.

Codex Theodosianus

Theodosian CodeCode of TheodosiusCode of Theodosius the Great
They operated under a series of laws that were added from time to time, but Roman law was not reorganised into a single code until the Codex Theodosianus (AD 438); later, in the Eastern Empire, the Codex repetitæ prælectionis (534) was highly influential throughout Europe.
Their product was a collection of 16 books containing more than 2,500 constitutions issued between 313 and 437.

Dušan's Code

codeCode of DušanDushan's code
Stefan Dušan, Emperor of Serbs and Greeks, enacted Dušan's Code (Душанов Законик/Dušanov Zakonik) in Serbia, in two state congresses: in 1349 in Skopje and in 1354 in Serres.
It is considered an early constitution, or close to it; an advanced set of laws which regulated all aspects of life.

Golden Bull of 1356

Golden Bull1356
The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV that fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, an important aspect of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Golden Bull of 1356 (Goldene Bulle, Bulla Aurea, Bolla d'oro) was a decree issued by the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg and Metz (Diet of Metz, 1356/57) headed by the Emperor Charles IV which fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, important aspects of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire.

Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire)

Imperial DietReichstagDiet
The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV that fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, an important aspect of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire.
After the conquest of Italy, the 1158 Diet of Roncaglia finalized four laws that would significantly alter the (never formally written) constitution of the Empire, marking the beginning of the steady decline of the central power in favour of the local dukes.

Civil law (legal system)

civil lawcivilcivil law system
St. Sava's Nomocanon was the compilation of Civil law, based on Roman Law and Canon law, based on Ecumenical Councils and its basic purpose was to organize functioning of the young Serbian kingdom and the Serbian church.
The Justinian Code's doctrines provided a sophisticated model for contracts, rules of procedure, family law, wills, and a strong monarchical constitutional system.

Constitutions of Ethiopia

constitutionConstitution of Ethiopia1995 constitution
The Fetha Negest remained the supreme law in Ethiopia until 1931, when a modern-style Constitution was first granted by Emperor Haile Selassie I.

Catalan constitutions

ConstitutionsCatalan ConstitutionCatalan historical rights
In the Principality of Catalonia, the Catalan constitutions were promulgated by the Court from 1283 (or even two centuries before, if we consider the Usatges of Barcelona as part of the compilation of Constitutions) until 1716, when Philip V of Spain gave the Nueva Planta decrees, finishing with the historical laws of Catalonia.
The compilations of the constitutions and other rights of Catalonia followed the Roman tradition of the Codex.

Constitution of India

Indian ConstitutionConstitutionconstitutional
The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any country in the world, containing 444 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules and 124 amendments, with 146,385 words in its English-language version.
It has features of a federation (a codified, supreme constitution, a three-tier governmental structure [central, state and local], division of powers, bicameralism and an independent judiciary) and unitary features such as a single constitution, single citizenship, an integrated judiciary, a flexible constitution, a strong central government, appointment of state governors by the central government, All India Services (the IAS, IFS and IPS) and emergency provisions.

Seventeen-article constitution

constitutionHarmony is to be valuedJūshichi-jō Kenpō
Japan's Seventeen-article constitution written in 604, reportedly by Prince Shōtoku, is an early example of a constitution in Asian political history.
The emphasis of the document is not so much on the basic laws by which the state was to be governed, such as one may expect from a modern constitution, but rather it was a highly Buddhist and Confucian document that focused on the morals and virtues that were to be expected of government officials and the emperor's subjects to ensure a smooth running of the state, where the emperor was to be regarded as the highest authority.

John Lambert (general)

John LambertGeneral LambertGeneral John Lambert
Drafted by Major-General John Lambert in 1653, the Instrument of Government included elements incorporated from an earlier document "Heads of Proposals", which had been agreed to by the Army Council in 1647, as a set of propositions intended to be a basis for a constitutional settlement after King Charles I was defeated in the First English Civil War.
During this time he wrote the Instrument of Government, one of only two codified constitutions ever adopted in Britain, and was influential in bringing about the Protectorate.

Golden Bull of 1222

Golden Bull
In 1222, Hungarian King Andrew II issued the Golden Bull of 1222.
The Golden Bull is often compared to Magna Carta; the Bull was the first constitutional document of the nation of Hungary, while Magna Carta was the first constitutional charter of the nation of England.

Saint Sava

St. SavaSavaArchbishop Sava
The Nomocanon of Saint Sava (Законоправило/Zakonopravilo) was the first Serbian constitution from 1219.
In the same year Sava published Zakonopravilo (or "St. Sava's Nomocanon"), the first constitution of Serbia; thus the Serbs acquired both forms of independence: political and religious.

Humble Petition and Advice

had even been offered the throneThe Humble Petition and Advice of the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses now assembled in Parliament of this Commonwealth
The Instrument of Government was replaced in May 1657 by England's second, and last, codified constitution, the Humble Petition and Advice, proposed by Sir Christopher Packe.
The Humble Petition and Advice was the second, and last, codified constitution of England after the Instrument of Government.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

Fundamental OrdersThe Fundamental Orders of ConnecticutRoger Ludlow
In 1639, the Colony of Connecticut adopted the Fundamental Orders, which was the first North American constitution, and is the basis for every new Connecticut constitution since, and is also the reason for Connecticut's nickname, "the Constitution State".
The Orders have the features of a written constitution and are considered by one author to be the first written Constitution in the Western tradition.

Code of Hammurabi

Codex HammurabiHammurabi CodeHammurabi's Code
Some of the better-known ancient law codes include the code of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin, the code of Hammurabi of Babylonia, the Hittite code, the Assyrian code and Mosaic law.
The code has been seen as an early example of a fundamental law, regulating a government – i.e., a primitive constitution.

Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk

Agreements and Constitutions of Laws and Freedoms of the Zaporizian Hostconstitutionsfirst Constitution in Europe
Agreements and Constitutions of Laws and Freedoms of the Zaporizian Host was written in 1710 by Pylyp Orlyk, hetman of the Zaporozhian Host.
The Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk (Конституція Пилипа Орлика (Konstytutsiya Pylypa Orlyka) or Pacts and Constitutions of Rights and Freedoms of the Zaporizhian Host Пакти і Конституції прав і вольностей Війська Запорозького (Pakty i Konstytutsii Prav i Volnostei Viyska Zaporozkoho), Pacta et Constitutiones Legum Libertatumque Exercitus Zaporoviensis) was a 1710 constitutional document written by Hetman Pylyp Orlyk, a Cossack of Ukraine.