Constitution

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)
Constitution of the Kingdom of Naples in 1848.
Detail from Hammurabi's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.
Diagram illustrating the classification of constitutions by Aristotle.
Third volume of the compilation of Catalan Constitutions of 1585
The Cossack Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, 1710.
A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
Constitution of May 3, 1791 (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). Polish King Stanisław August (left, in regal ermine-trimmed cloak), enters St. John's Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
Presidential copy of the Russian Constitution.
Magna Carta
United States Constitution

Aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

- Constitution
Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)

500 related topics

Relevance

Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.

Constitution of the United States

Supreme law of the United States of America.

Supreme law of the United States of America.

Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.
Signing of the Constitution, September 17, 1787 (1940 by Howard Chandler Christy)
Dates the 13 states ratified the Constitution
x120px
"We the People" in an original edition
Closing endorsement section of the United States Constitution
United States Bill of Rights
Currently housed in the National Archives.
John Jay, 1789–1795
John Marshall, 1801–1835
Salmon P. Chase {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Chase Court, 1864–1873, in 1865 were Salmon P. Chase (chief Justice); Hon. Nathan Clifford, Maine; Stephen J. Field, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Hon. Samuel F. Miller, U.S. Supreme Court; Hon. Noah H. Swayne, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Judge Morrison R. Waite}}
William Howard Taft {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Taft Court, 1921–1930, in 1925 were James Clark McReynolds, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., William Howard Taft (chief justice), Willis Van Devanter, Louis Brandeis. Edward Sanford, George Sutherland, Pierce Butler, Harlan Fiske Stone}}
Earl Warren {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Warren Court, 1953–1969, in 1963 were Felix Frankfurter; Hugo Black; Earl Warren (chief justice); Stanley Reed; William O. Douglas. Tom Clark; Robert H. Jackson; Harold Burton; Sherman Minton}}
William Rehnquist {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Rehnquist Court, 1986–2005.}}
José Rizal
Sun Yat-sen

It superseded the Articles of Confederation, the nation's first constitution.

Constitution of the United States, page 1

Apostolic constitution

Most solemn form of legislation issued by the Pope.

Most solemn form of legislation issued by the Pope.

Constitution of the United States, page 1

The use of the term constitution comes from Latin constitutio, which referred to any important law issued by the Roman emperor, and is retained in church documents because of the inheritance that the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church received from Roman law.

The High Court of Australia. Under the Constitution of Australia, the judiciary forms part of the separation of powers, with executive or legislative actions subject to review by the judiciary. Laws, acts and governmental actions that are incompatible with a higher authority (e.g. the Constitution) can be reviewed and overturned

Judicial review

Process under which executive, legislative and administrative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.

Process under which executive, legislative and administrative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.

The High Court of Australia. Under the Constitution of Australia, the judiciary forms part of the separation of powers, with executive or legislative actions subject to review by the judiciary. Laws, acts and governmental actions that are incompatible with a higher authority (e.g. the Constitution) can be reviewed and overturned

A court with authority for judicial review, may invalidate laws, acts and governmental actions that are incompatible with a higher authority: an executive decision may be invalidated for being unlawful or a statute may be invalidated for violating the terms of a constitution.

The pathway of regional integration or separation

Federation

[[File:Map of unitary and federal states.svg|thumb|upright=1.7|

[[File:Map of unitary and federal states.svg|thumb|upright=1.7|

The pathway of regional integration or separation
A map of the Russian Federation, showing its eighty-three federal subjects before the annexation of Crimea in 2014.
A map of Brazil, showing its twenty-six constituent states and the Federal District.
A map of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, showing its 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory.
A map of the United Mexican States (Mexico), showing its thirty-one constituent states and the Mexico City.
A map of the United States of America showing its fifty constituent states and the District of Columbia.
A map of Canada showing its ten provinces and three territories.
A map of Australia showing its six states and ten territories.
A political map of India showing 28 states and 8 union territories including the National Capital Territory.
A map of the Federal Republic of Germany showing its sixteen constituent states (Länder) including three city-states.
The Swiss Confederation and its 26 cantons.
The Autonomous communities of Spain.
Provinces of South Africa.
The United Provinces of Central America was a short-lived federal republic

In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision, neither by the component states nor the federal political body.

World administrative levels

Government

System or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state.

System or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state.

World administrative levels
Map of European nations coloured by percentage of vote governing party got in last election as of 2022

In many countries, the government has a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing principles and philosophy.

The frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan

State (polity)

Centralized political organization that imposes and enforces rules over a population within a territory.

Centralized political organization that imposes and enforces rules over a population within a territory.

The frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan
Painting of Roman Senators encircling Julius Caesar
IWW poster "Pyramid of Capitalist System" (c. 1911), depicting an anti-capitalist perspective on statist/capitalist social structures

A federated state is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.

Magna Carta of England (the "Great Charter") created in 1215 is regarded as one of the greatest constitutional documents of all times.

Constitutionalism

Limited by a body of fundamental law".

Limited by a body of fundamental law".

Magna Carta of England (the "Great Charter") created in 1215 is regarded as one of the greatest constitutional documents of all times.
Supreme Court of the United States
Parliament of the United Kingdom

Then in carrying the story forward, he identifies revolutionary declarations and constitutions, documents and judicial decisions of the Confederation period and the formation of the federal Constitution.

Iustitia ("Lady Justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.

Law

System of rules that are created and are enforceable by social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior, with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate.

System of rules that are created and are enforceable by social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior, with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate.

Iustitia ("Lady Justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.
Classic symbol of law in heraldry.
"The Law" sculpture at interior of the Presidential Palace in Helsinki, Finland.
Bentham's utilitarian theories remained dominant in law until the 20th century.
King Hammurabi is revealed the code of laws by the Mesopotamian sun god Shamash, also revered as the god of justice.
The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution for a country, containing 444 articles, 12 schedules, numerous amendments and 117,369 words.
Colour-coded map of the legal systems around the world, showing civil, common law, religious, customary and mixed legal systems. Common law systems are shaded pink, and civil law systems are shaded blue/turquoise.
Emperor Justinian (527–565) of the Byzantine Empire who ordered the codification of Corpus Juris Civilis.
First page of the 1804 edition of the Napoleonic Code.
King John of England signs Magna Carta.
A trial in the Ottoman Empire, 1879, when religious law applied under the Mecelle.
The Chamber of the House of Representatives, the lower house in the National Diet of Japan.
The G20 meetings are composed of representatives of each country's executive branch.
Officers of the South African Police Service in Johannesburg, 2010.
The mandarins were powerful bureaucrats in imperial China (photograph shows a Qing dynasty official with mandarin square visible).
In civil law systems such as those of Italy, France, Germany, Spain and Greece, there is a distinct category of notary, a legally trained public official, compensated by the parties to a transaction. This is a 16th-century painting of such a notary by Flemish painter Quentin Massys.
A march in Washington, D.C., during the civil rights movement in 1963.
Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations system was agreed during World War II.
The Italian lawyer Sir Alberico Gentili, the Father of international law.
The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
A depiction of a 17th-century criminal trial, for witchcraft in Salem.
The famous Carbolic Smoke Ball advertisement to cure influenza was held to be a unilateral contract.
The "McLibel case" was the longest-running case in UK history. It involved publishing a pamphlet that criticised McDonald's restaurants.
A painting of the South Sea Bubble, one of the world's first ever speculations and crashes, led to strict regulation on share trading.
The Court of Chancery, London, England, early 19th century.
A trade union protest by UNISON while on strike.
The New York Stock Exchange trading floor after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, before tougher banking regulation was introduced.
Richard Posner, one of the Chicago School, until 2014 ran a blog with Bank of Sweden Prize winning economist Gary Becker.
Max Weber in 1917, Weber began his career as a lawyer, and is regarded as one of the founders of sociology and sociology of law.

The creation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein.

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)

Fundamental rights

Fundamental rights are a group of rights that have been recognized by a high degree of protection from encroachment.

Fundamental rights are a group of rights that have been recognized by a high degree of protection from encroachment.

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)

These rights are specifically identified in a constitution, or have been found under due process of law.

French Constitution of 1791.

French Constitution of 1791

French Constitution of 1791.
Proclamation of the Constitution on the place du marché des Innocents on September 14, 1791, by Jean-Louis Prieur, (Musée de la Révolution française).

The French Constitution of 1791 (Constitution française du 3 septembre 1791) was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime.