Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)
Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.
A person casts their vote in the second round of the 2007 French presidential election.
Constitution of the Kingdom of Naples in 1848.
Signing of the Constitution, September 17, 1787 (1940 by Howard Chandler Christy)
Democracy's de facto status in the world as of 2020, according to Democracy Index by The Economist
Detail from Hammurabi's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.
Dates the 13 states ratified the Constitution
Democracy's de jure status in the world as of 2020; only Saudi Arabia, Oman, the UAE, Qatar, Brunei, Afghanistan, and the Vatican do not claim to be a democracy.
Diagram illustrating the classification of constitutions by Aristotle.
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Nineteenth-century painting by Philipp Foltz depicting the Athenian politician Pericles delivering his famous funeral oration in front of the Assembly.
Third volume of the compilation of Catalan Constitutions of 1585
"We the People" in an original edition
Magna Carta, 1215, England
The Cossack Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, 1710.
Closing endorsement section of the United States Constitution
John Locke expanded on Thomas Hobbes's social contract theory and developed the concept of natural rights, the right to private property and the principle of consent of the governed. His ideas form the ideological basis of liberal democracies today.
A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
United States Bill of Rights
Currently housed in the National Archives.
Statue of Athena, the patron goddess of Athens, in front of the Austrian Parliament Building. Athena has been used as an international symbol of freedom and democracy since at least the late eighteenth century.
Constitution of May 3, 1791 (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). Polish King Stanisław August (left, in regal ermine-trimmed cloak), enters St. John's Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
John Jay, 1789–1795
The establishment of universal male suffrage in France in 1848 was an important milestone in the history of democracy.
Presidential copy of the Russian Constitution.
John Marshall, 1801–1835
The number of nations 1800–2003 scoring 8 or higher on Polity IV scale, another widely used measure of democracy
Magna Carta
Salmon P. Chase {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Chase Court, 1864–1873, in 1865 were Salmon P. Chase (chief Justice); Hon. Nathan Clifford, Maine; Stephen J. Field, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Hon. Samuel F. Miller, U.S. Supreme Court; Hon. Noah H. Swayne, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Judge Morrison R. Waite}}
Corazon Aquino taking the Oath of Office, becoming the first female president in Asia
United States Constitution
William Howard Taft {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Taft Court, 1921–1930, in 1925 were James Clark McReynolds, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., William Howard Taft (chief justice), Willis Van Devanter, Louis Brandeis. Edward Sanford, George Sutherland, Pierce Butler, Harlan Fiske Stone}}
Age of democracies at the end of 2015
Earl Warren {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Warren Court, 1953–1969, in 1963 were Felix Frankfurter; Hugo Black; Earl Warren (chief justice); Stanley Reed; William O. Douglas. Tom Clark; Robert H. Jackson; Harold Burton; Sherman Minton}}
Meeting of the Grand Committee of the Parliament of Finland in 2008.
William Rehnquist {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Rehnquist Court, 1986–2005.}}
Countries autocratizing (red) or democratizing (blue) substantially and significantly (2010–2020). Countries in grey are substantially unchanged.
José Rizal
designated "electoral democracies" in Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2021 survey, covering the year 2020.
Sun Yat-sen
A Landsgemeinde (in 2009) of the canton of Glarus, an example of direct democracy in Switzerland
In Switzerland, without needing to register, every citizen receives ballot papers and information brochures for each vote (and can send it back by post). Switzerland has a direct democracy system and votes (and elections) are organised about four times a year; here, to Berne's citizen in November 2008 about 5 national, 2 cantonal, 4 municipal referendums, and 2 elections (government and parliament of the City of Berne) to take care of at the same time.
Queen Elizabeth II, a constitutional monarch
Banner in Hong Kong asking for democracy, August 2019

It superseded the Articles of Confederation, the nation's first constitution.

- Constitution of the United States

The Constitution of San Marino might be the world's oldest active written constitution, since some of its core documents have been in operation since 1600, while the Constitution of the United States is the oldest active codified constitution.

- Constitution

In the common variant of liberal democracy, the powers of the majority are exercised within the framework of a representative democracy, but the constitution limits the majority and protects the minority—usually through the enjoyment by all of certain individual rights, e.g. freedom of speech or freedom of association.

- Democracy

The American Revolution led to the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1787, the oldest surviving, still active, governmental codified constitution.

- Democracy

The model proposed that constitutional governments should be stable, adaptable, accountable, open and should represent the people (i.e., support democracy).

- Constitution

Edwards. Donna, Mary Anne Franks, David Law (Chair in Public Law at the University of Hong Kong), Lawrence Lessig, and Louis Michael Seidman, "Constitution in Crisis: Has America's founding document become the nation's undoing?", Harper's Magazine, vol. 339, no. 2033 (October 2019), pp. 25–32. "The Constitution is not producing a democracy that's responsive to the people. [p. 31.]... How do we break this deeply unrepresentative system that we have right now?" "[O]ur system—and especially our elected leaders—are averse to change. But there is still a revolutionary spirit within the American public that doesn't exist among elected leaders." [p. 32.]

- Constitution of the United States
Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)

2 related topics with Alpha

Overall

John Locke

Separation of powers

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Separation of powers refers to the division of a state's government into branches, each with separate, independent powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with those of the other branches.

Separation of powers refers to the division of a state's government into branches, each with separate, independent powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with those of the other branches.

John Locke
Montesquieu
George Washington at Constitutional Convention of 1787, signing of U.S. Constitution

John Calvin (1509–1564) favoured a system of government that divided political power between democracy and aristocracy (mixed government).

Under this influence it was implemented in 1787 in the Constitution of the United States.

Constitutions with a high degree of separation of powers are found worldwide.

Supermajority

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Requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of more than one-half used for a simple majority.

Requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of more than one-half used for a simple majority.

Supermajority rules in a democracy can help to prevent a majority from eroding fundamental rights of a minority, but they can also hamper efforts to respond to problems and encourage corrupt compromises in the times action is taken.

Changes to constitutions, especially those with entrenched clauses, commonly require supermajority support in a legislature.

The Constitution of the United States requires supermajorities in order for certain significant actions to occur.