Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)
Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.
Constitution of the Kingdom of Naples in 1848.
Signing of the Constitution, September 17, 1787 (1940 by Howard Chandler Christy)
Detail from Hammurabi's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.
Dates the 13 states ratified the Constitution
Diagram illustrating the classification of constitutions by Aristotle.
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Third volume of the compilation of Catalan Constitutions of 1585
"We the People" in an original edition
The Cossack Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, 1710.
Closing endorsement section of the United States Constitution
A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
United States Bill of Rights
Currently housed in the National Archives.
Constitution of May 3, 1791 (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). Polish King Stanisław August (left, in regal ermine-trimmed cloak), enters St. John's Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
John Jay, 1789–1795
Presidential copy of the Russian Constitution.
John Marshall, 1801–1835
Magna Carta
Salmon P. Chase {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Chase Court, 1864–1873, in 1865 were Salmon P. Chase (chief Justice); Hon. Nathan Clifford, Maine; Stephen J. Field, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Hon. Samuel F. Miller, U.S. Supreme Court; Hon. Noah H. Swayne, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Judge Morrison R. Waite}}
United States Constitution
William Howard Taft {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Taft Court, 1921–1930, in 1925 were James Clark McReynolds, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., William Howard Taft (chief justice), Willis Van Devanter, Louis Brandeis. Edward Sanford, George Sutherland, Pierce Butler, Harlan Fiske Stone}}
Earl Warren {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Warren Court, 1953–1969, in 1963 were Felix Frankfurter; Hugo Black; Earl Warren (chief justice); Stanley Reed; William O. Douglas. Tom Clark; Robert H. Jackson; Harold Burton; Sherman Minton}}
William Rehnquist {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Rehnquist Court, 1986–2005.}}
José Rizal
Sun Yat-sen

An entrenched clause or entrenchment clause of a basic law or constitution is a provision that makes certain amendments either more difficult or impossible to pass, making such amendments invalid.

- Entrenched clause

It superseded the Articles of Confederation, the nation's first constitution.

- Constitution of the United States

The Constitution of San Marino might be the world's oldest active written constitution, since some of its core documents have been in operation since 1600, while the Constitution of the United States is the oldest active codified constitution.

- Constitution

Article V of the United States Constitution temporarily shielded certain clauses in Article I from being amended.

- Entrenched clause

Constitutions may also provide that their most basic principles can never be abolished, even by amendment.

- Constitution

The Corwin Amendment (proposed 1861) would, if ratified, shield "domestic institutions" of the states (which in 1861 included slavery) from the constitutional amendment process and from abolition or interference by Congress. This proposal was one of several measures considered by Congress in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to attract the seceding states back into the Union and to entice border slave states to stay. Five states ratified the amendment in the early 1860s, but none have since. To become part of the Constitution today, ratification by an additional 33 states would be required. The subject of this proposal was subsequently addressed by the 1865 Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery.

- Constitution of the United States
Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)

2 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Supermajority

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Requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of more than one-half used for a simple majority.

Requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of more than one-half used for a simple majority.

Changes to constitutions, especially those with entrenched clauses, commonly require supermajority support in a legislature.

The Constitution of the United States requires supermajorities in order for certain significant actions to occur.

Suffrage universel dédié à Ledru-Rollin, Frédéric Sorrieu, 1850

Suffrage

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Right to vote in public, political elections and referendums .

Right to vote in public, political elections and referendums .

Suffrage universel dédié à Ledru-Rollin, Frédéric Sorrieu, 1850
The Peterloo Massacre of 1819
German election poster from 1919: Equal rights – equal duties!
A British postcard against women's suffrage postcard from c.1908. It shows unflattering caricatures of suffragettes in front of parliament and the caption: 'This is the house that man built' with a poem. From the People's History Museum, Manchester.
Women's Suffrage Headquarters on Euclid Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio in 1912
Demonstration for universal right to vote, Prague, Austria-Hungary, 1905
Countries with universal suffrage granted to women, 2017
The Chartists' National Convention at the British Coffee House in February 1839

1910 – The Union of South Africa is established by the South Africa Act 1909. The House of Assembly is elected by first-past-the-post voting in single-member constituencies. The franchise qualifications are the same as those previously existing for elections of the legislatures of the colonies that comprised the Union. In the Transvaal and the Orange Free State the franchise is limited to white men. In Natal the franchise is limited to men meeting property and literacy qualifications; it was theoretically colour-blind but in practise nearly all non-white men were excluded. The traditional "Cape Qualified Franchise" of the Cape Province is limited to men meeting property and literacy qualifications and is colour-blind; nonetheless 85% of voters are white. The rights of non-white voters in the Cape Province are protected by an entrenched clause in the South Africa Act requiring a two-thirds vote in a joint sitting of both Houses of Parliament.

1809 – New constitution adopted and separation of powers outlined in the Instrument of Government.

The Constitution did not originally define who was eligible to vote, allowing each state to decide this status.