Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.
Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)
Portrait by an anonymous artist, 1753–1794
Signing of the Constitution, September 17, 1787 (1940 by Howard Chandler Christy)
Constitution of the Kingdom of Naples in 1848.
Château de la Brède
Dates the 13 states ratified the Constitution
Detail from Hammurabi's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.
Montesquieu's 1748 [[:File:Montesquieu, De l'Esprit des loix (1st ed, 1748, vol 1).pdf|De l'Esprit des loix]]
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Diagram illustrating the classification of constitutions by Aristotle.
Lettres familières à divers amis d'Italie, 1767
"We the People" in an original edition
Third volume of the compilation of Catalan Constitutions of 1585
Closing endorsement section of the United States Constitution
The Cossack Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, 1710.
United States Bill of Rights
Currently housed in the National Archives.
A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
John Jay, 1789–1795
Constitution of May 3, 1791 (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). Polish King Stanisław August (left, in regal ermine-trimmed cloak), enters St. John's Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
John Marshall, 1801–1835
Presidential copy of the Russian Constitution.
Salmon P. Chase {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Chase Court, 1864–1873, in 1865 were Salmon P. Chase (chief Justice); Hon. Nathan Clifford, Maine; Stephen J. Field, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Hon. Samuel F. Miller, U.S. Supreme Court; Hon. Noah H. Swayne, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Judge Morrison R. Waite}}
Magna Carta
William Howard Taft {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Taft Court, 1921–1930, in 1925 were James Clark McReynolds, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., William Howard Taft (chief justice), Willis Van Devanter, Louis Brandeis. Edward Sanford, George Sutherland, Pierce Butler, Harlan Fiske Stone}}
United States Constitution
Earl Warren {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Warren Court, 1953–1969, in 1963 were Felix Frankfurter; Hugo Black; Earl Warren (chief justice); Stanley Reed; William O. Douglas. Tom Clark; Robert H. Jackson; Harold Burton; Sherman Minton}}
William Rehnquist {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Rehnquist Court, 1986–2005.}}
José Rizal
Sun Yat-sen

It superseded the Articles of Confederation, the nation's first constitution.

- Constitution of the United States

He is the principal source of the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in many constitutions throughout the world.

- Montesquieu

His anonymously published The Spirit of Law (1748), which was received well in both Great Britain and the American colonies, influenced the Founding Fathers of the United States in drafting the U.S. Constitution.

- Montesquieu

The Constitution of San Marino might be the world's oldest active written constitution, since some of its core documents have been in operation since 1600, while the Constitution of the United States is the oldest active codified constitution.

- Constitution

The Virginia Plan (also known as the Large State Plan or the Randolph Plan) proposed that the legislative department of the national government be composed of a Bicameral Congress, with both chambers elected with apportionment according to population. Generally favoring the most highly populated states, it used the philosophy of John Locke to rely on consent of the governed, Montesquieu for divided government, and Edward Coke to emphasize civil liberties.

- Constitution of the United States

The Swedish constitution of 1772 was enacted under King Gustavus III and was inspired by the separation of powers by Montesquieu.

- Constitution
Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.

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John Locke

Separation of powers

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Separation of powers refers to the division of a state's government into branches, each with separate, independent powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with those of the other branches.

Separation of powers refers to the division of a state's government into branches, each with separate, independent powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with those of the other branches.

John Locke
Montesquieu
George Washington at Constitutional Convention of 1787, signing of U.S. Constitution

The term "tripartite system" is commonly ascribed to French Enlightenment political philosopher Baron de Montesquieu, although he did not use such a term but referred to "distribution" of powers.

Under this influence it was implemented in 1787 in the Constitution of the United States.

Constitutions with a high degree of separation of powers are found worldwide.

De l'esprit des loix, 1st edn 1748, 2 vols.

The Spirit of Law

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De l'esprit des loix, 1st edn 1748, 2 vols.
De l'esprit des loix, 1st edn 1748, 2 vols.

The Spirit of Law (French: De l'esprit des lois, originally spelled De l'esprit des loix ), also known in English as The Spirit of the Laws, is a treatise on political theory, as well as a pioneering work in comparative law, published in 1748 by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu.

Montesquieu's treatise, already widely disseminated, had an enormous influence on the work of many others, most notably: Catherine the Great, who produced Nakaz (Instruction); the Founding Fathers of the United States Constitution; and Alexis de Tocqueville, who applied Montesquieu's methods to a study of American society, in Democracy in America.

He pleads for a constitutional system of government with separation of powers, the preservation of legality and civil liberties, and the end of slavery.