A report on GovernmentDemocracy and Constitution

World administrative levels
A person casts their vote in the second round of the 2007 French presidential election.
Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)
Map of European nations coloured by percentage of vote governing party got in last election as of 2022
Democracy's de facto status in the world as of 2020, according to Democracy Index by The Economist
Constitution of the Kingdom of Naples in 1848.
Governments recognised as "electoral democracies" by the Freedom in the World survey
Democracy's de jure status in the world as of 2020; only Saudi Arabia, Oman, the UAE, Qatar, Brunei, Afghanistan, and the Vatican do not claim to be a democracy.
Detail from Hammurabi's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.
Separation of powers in the US government, demonstrating the tria politica model
Nineteenth-century painting by Philipp Foltz depicting the Athenian politician Pericles delivering his famous funeral oration in front of the Assembly.
Diagram illustrating the classification of constitutions by Aristotle.
Magna Carta, 1215, England
Third volume of the compilation of Catalan Constitutions of 1585
John Locke expanded on Thomas Hobbes's social contract theory and developed the concept of natural rights, the right to private property and the principle of consent of the governed. His ideas form the ideological basis of liberal democracies today.
The Cossack Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, 1710.
Statue of Athena, the patron goddess of Athens, in front of the Austrian Parliament Building. Athena has been used as an international symbol of freedom and democracy since at least the late eighteenth century.
A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
The establishment of universal male suffrage in France in 1848 was an important milestone in the history of democracy.
Constitution of May 3, 1791 (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). Polish King Stanisław August (left, in regal ermine-trimmed cloak), enters St. John's Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
The number of nations 1800–2003 scoring 8 or higher on Polity IV scale, another widely used measure of democracy
Presidential copy of the Russian Constitution.
Corazon Aquino taking the Oath of Office, becoming the first female president in Asia
Magna Carta
Age of democracies at the end of 2015
United States Constitution
Meeting of the Grand Committee of the Parliament of Finland in 2008.
Countries autocratizing (red) or democratizing (blue) substantially and significantly (2010–2020). Countries in grey are substantially unchanged.
designated "electoral democracies" in Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2021 survey, covering the year 2020.
A Landsgemeinde (in 2009) of the canton of Glarus, an example of direct democracy in Switzerland
In Switzerland, without needing to register, every citizen receives ballot papers and information brochures for each vote (and can send it back by post). Switzerland has a direct democracy system and votes (and elections) are organised about four times a year; here, to Berne's citizen in November 2008 about 5 national, 2 cantonal, 4 municipal referendums, and 2 elections (government and parliament of the City of Berne) to take care of at the same time.
Queen Elizabeth II, a constitutional monarch
Banner in Hong Kong asking for democracy, August 2019

Democracy ( dēmos 'people' and kratos 'rule' ) is a form of government in which the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to choose governing officials to do so ("representative democracy").

- Democracy

In many countries, the government has a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing principles and philosophy.

- Government

Historically prevalent forms of government include monarchy, aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, theocracy, and tyranny.

- Government

In the common variant of liberal democracy, the powers of the majority are exercised within the framework of a representative democracy, but the constitution limits the majority and protects the minority—usually through the enjoyment by all of certain individual rights, e.g. freedom of speech or freedom of association.

- Democracy

After that, many governments ruled by special codes of written laws.

- Constitution

The model proposed that constitutional governments should be stable, adaptable, accountable, open and should represent the people (i.e., support democracy).

- Constitution
World administrative levels

2 related topics with Alpha


The frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan

State (polity)

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Centralized political organization that imposes and enforces rules over a population within a territory.

Centralized political organization that imposes and enforces rules over a population within a territory.

The frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan
Painting of Roman Senators encircling Julius Caesar
IWW poster "Pyramid of Capitalist System" (c. 1911), depicting an anti-capitalist perspective on statist/capitalist social structures

A federated state is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.

A state can be distinguished from a government.

Democracy wasn't (the newly formed voting franchise) as is always painted by both political revolutionaries and political philosophers as a cry for political freedom or wanting to be accepted by the 'ruling elite', Foucault insists, but was a part of a skilled endeavour of switching over new technology such as; Translatio imperii, Plenitudo potestatis and extra Ecclesiam nulla salus readily available from the past Medieval period, into mass persuasion for the future industrial 'political' population(deception over the population) in which the political population was now asked to insist upon itself "the president must be elected".

John Locke

Separation of powers

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John Locke
George Washington at Constitutional Convention of 1787, signing of U.S. Constitution

Separation of powers refers to the division of a state's government into branches, each with separate, independent powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with those of the other branches.

John Calvin (1509–1564) favoured a system of government that divided political power between democracy and aristocracy (mixed government).

Constitutions with a high degree of separation of powers are found worldwide.