A report on ConstitutionLaw and Monarchy

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)
Iustitia ("Lady Justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.
Richard I of England being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey, from a 13th-century chronicle.
Constitution of the Kingdom of Naples in 1848.
Classic symbol of law in heraldry.
The Weld-Blundell Prism, inscribed with the Sumerian King List
Detail from Hammurabi's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.
"The Law" sculpture at interior of the Presidential Palace in Helsinki, Finland.
Map of monarchies and republics in 1648
Diagram illustrating the classification of constitutions by Aristotle.
Bentham's utilitarian theories remained dominant in law until the 20th century.
King George III of the United Kingdom, Portrait by Allan Ramsay, 1762.
Third volume of the compilation of Catalan Constitutions of 1585
King Hammurabi is revealed the code of laws by the Mesopotamian sun god Shamash, also revered as the god of justice.
King Salman of Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarch.
The Cossack Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, 1710.
The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution for a country, containing 444 articles, 12 schedules, numerous amendments and 117,369 words.
Postcard of ruling monarchs, taken in 1909
 between February (accession of King Manuel II of Portugal) and November (death of Guangxu Emperor)
A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
Colour-coded map of the legal systems around the world, showing civil, common law, religious, customary and mixed legal systems. Common law systems are shaded pink, and civil law systems are shaded blue/turquoise.
Tewodros II, Emperor of Ethiopia.
Constitution of May 3, 1791 (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). Polish King Stanisław August (left, in regal ermine-trimmed cloak), enters St. John's Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
Emperor Justinian (527–565) of the Byzantine Empire who ordered the codification of Corpus Juris Civilis.
King Leopold I, an elected founder of the hereditary monarchy of Belgium
Presidential copy of the Russian Constitution.
First page of the 1804 edition of the Napoleonic Code.
Pope Francis, Sovereign of the Vatican City State
Magna Carta
King John of England signs Magna Carta.
Current European monarchies by succession method:
Absolute primogeniture
Male-preference cognatic primogeniture, to be changed to absolute primogeniture
Male-preference cognatic primogeniture
Agnatic primogeniture
United States Constitution
A trial in the Ottoman Empire, 1879, when religious law applied under the Mecelle.
The Chamber of the House of Representatives, the lower house in the National Diet of Japan.
The G20 meetings are composed of representatives of each country's executive branch.
Officers of the South African Police Service in Johannesburg, 2010.
The mandarins were powerful bureaucrats in imperial China (photograph shows a Qing dynasty official with mandarin square visible).
In civil law systems such as those of Italy, France, Germany, Spain and Greece, there is a distinct category of notary, a legally trained public official, compensated by the parties to a transaction. This is a 16th-century painting of such a notary by Flemish painter Quentin Massys.
A march in Washington, D.C., during the civil rights movement in 1963.
Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations system was agreed during World War II.
The Italian lawyer Sir Alberico Gentili, the Father of international law.
The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
A depiction of a 17th-century criminal trial, for witchcraft in Salem.
The famous Carbolic Smoke Ball advertisement to cure influenza was held to be a unilateral contract.
The "McLibel case" was the longest-running case in UK history. It involved publishing a pamphlet that criticised McDonald's restaurants.
A painting of the South Sea Bubble, one of the world's first ever speculations and crashes, led to strict regulation on share trading.
The Court of Chancery, London, England, early 19th century.
A trade union protest by UNISON while on strike.
The New York Stock Exchange trading floor after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, before tougher banking regulation was introduced.
Richard Posner, one of the Chicago School, until 2014 ran a blog with Bank of Sweden Prize winning economist Gary Becker.
Max Weber in 1917, Weber began his career as a lawyer, and is regarded as one of the founders of sociology and sociology of law.

A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

- Constitution

The creation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein.

- Law

In an absolute monarchy, the monarch rules as an autocrat, with absolute power over the state and government—for example, the right to rule by decree, promulgate laws, and impose punishments.

- Monarchy

In a constitutional monarchy, the monarch's power is subject to a constitution. In most current constitutional monarchies, the monarch is mainly a ceremonial figurehead symbol of national unity and state continuity. Although nominally sovereign, the electorate (through the legislature) exercises political sovereignty. Constitutional monarchs' political power is limited. Typical monarchical powers include granting pardons, granting honours, and reserve powers, e.g. to dismiss the prime minister, refuse to dissolve parliament, or veto legislation ("withhold Royal Assent"). They often also have privileges of inviolability and sovereign immunity. A monarch's powers and influence will depend on tradition, precedent, popular opinion, and law.

- Monarchy

The Petition offered hereditary monarchy to Oliver Cromwell, asserted Parliament's control over issuing new taxation, provided an independent council to advise the king and safeguarded "Triennial" meetings of Parliament.

- Constitution

or "R (for Rex or Regina) v ...".

- Law
Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)

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