Constitution

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)
Constitution of the Kingdom of Naples in 1848.
Detail from Hammurabi's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.
Diagram illustrating the classification of constitutions by Aristotle.
Third volume of the compilation of Catalan Constitutions of 1585
The Cossack Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, 1710.
A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
Constitution of May 3, 1791 (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). Polish King Stanisław August (left, in regal ermine-trimmed cloak), enters St. John's Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
Presidential copy of the Russian Constitution.
Magna Carta
United States Constitution

Aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

- Constitution
Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)

83 related topics

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The principles from the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen still have constitutional importance

Parliamentary sovereignty

Concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies.

Concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies.

The principles from the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen still have constitutional importance

It also holds that the legislative body may change or repeal any previous legislation and so it is not bound by written law (in some cases, not even a constitution) or by precedent.

Geoffrey Hosking suggests that fear of being enslaved was a central motivating force for the development of the Greek sense of citizenship. Sculpture: a Greek woman being served by a slave-child.

Citizenship

Relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection.

Relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection.

Geoffrey Hosking suggests that fear of being enslaved was a central motivating force for the development of the Greek sense of citizenship. Sculpture: a Greek woman being served by a slave-child.
Portrait of Dred Scott, the plaintiff in the infamous Dred Scott v. Sandford case at the Supreme Court of the United States, commissioned by a "group of Negro citizens" and presented to the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis, in 1888
Citizenship ceremony on beach near Cooktown, Queensland. 2012
Diagram of relationship between; Citizens, Politicians + Laws

State constitutions may grant certain rights above and beyond what is granted under the United States Constitution and may impose their own obligations including the sovereign right of taxation and military service; each state maintains at least one military force subject to national militia transfer service, the state's national guard, and some states maintain a second military force not subject to nationalization.

The Commonwealth Law Courts Building in Melbourne, the location of the Melbourne branches of the Federal Circuit Court of Australia, the Federal Court of Australia, the Family Court of Australia, as well as occasional High Court of Australia sittings

Judiciary

System of courts that adjudicates legal disputes/disagreements and interprets, defends, and applies the law in legal cases.

System of courts that adjudicates legal disputes/disagreements and interprets, defends, and applies the law in legal cases.

The Commonwealth Law Courts Building in Melbourne, the location of the Melbourne branches of the Federal Circuit Court of Australia, the Federal Court of Australia, the Family Court of Australia, as well as occasional High Court of Australia sittings
Corpus Iuris Civilis, 1607
Gratian
Lady Justice (Latin: Justicia), symbol of the judiciary. Statue at Shelby County Courthouse, Memphis, Tennessee

Courts with judicial review power may annul the laws and rules of the state when it finds them incompatible with a higher norm, such as primary legislation, the provisions of the constitution, treaties or international law.

Basic Law. Published by the Federal Agency for Civic Education

Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany

Basic Law. Published by the Federal Agency for Civic Education
The Grundrechte at Jakob Kaiser House, Berlin
Article 1, sentence 1: "Human dignity is inviolable"
The West German ministers-president debating the Frankfurt Documents in Koblenz
German stamp commemorating the work of the Parlamentarischer Rat
Facsimile of the Basic Law of 1949 as received by each member of the Parliamentary Council
The Constitutional Convention at Herrenchiemsee drew up the draft for the Basic Law in summer 1948 at the Herrenchiemsee Abbey on the secluded Herreninsel (Isle of Lords) in the Bavarian lake of Chiemsee while shielded from the public. The basic law formed the central part of the constitution of Allied-occupied Germany and subsequently reunified Germany.
Political system of Germany, chart

The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.

The outgoing Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy (right) congratulates the incoming Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez (left) upon losing the no confidence vote on 1 June 2018.

Motion of no confidence

Statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility (government, management, etc.) is still deemed fit to hold that position, such as because they are inadequate in some aspect, fail to carry out their obligations, or make decisions that other members feel to be detrimental.

Statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility (government, management, etc.) is still deemed fit to hold that position, such as because they are inadequate in some aspect, fail to carry out their obligations, or make decisions that other members feel to be detrimental.

The outgoing Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy (right) congratulates the incoming Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez (left) upon losing the no confidence vote on 1 June 2018.

Depending on the constitution of the body concerned, "no confidence" may lead to the dismissal of the Council of Ministers or other position-holders and often the dissolution of most of the leadership of the executive branch.

De l'esprit des loix, 1st edn 1748, 2 vols.

The Spirit of Law

Treatise on political theory, as well as a pioneering work in comparative law, published in 1748 by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu.

Treatise on political theory, as well as a pioneering work in comparative law, published in 1748 by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu.

De l'esprit des loix, 1st edn 1748, 2 vols.

He pleads for a constitutional system of government with separation of powers, the preservation of legality and civil liberties, and the end of slavery.

The High Court of Australia. Under the Constitution of Australia, the judiciary forms part of the separation of powers, with executive or legislative actions subject to review by the judiciary. Laws, acts and governmental actions that are incompatible with a higher authority (e.g. the Constitution) can be reviewed and overturned

Judicial review

Process under which executive, legislative and administrative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.

Process under which executive, legislative and administrative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.

The High Court of Australia. Under the Constitution of Australia, the judiciary forms part of the separation of powers, with executive or legislative actions subject to review by the judiciary. Laws, acts and governmental actions that are incompatible with a higher authority (e.g. the Constitution) can be reviewed and overturned

A court with authority for judicial review, may invalidate laws, acts and governmental actions that are incompatible with a higher authority: an executive decision may be invalidated for being unlawful or a statute may be invalidated for violating the terms of a constitution.

The original cover of Thomas Hobbes's work Leviathan (1651), in which he discusses the concept of the social contract theory.

Social contract

Theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment and usually concerns the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual.

Theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment and usually concerns the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual.

The original cover of Thomas Hobbes's work Leviathan (1651), in which he discusses the concept of the social contract theory.

To consent, a necessary condition is that the rules be constitutional in that sense.

The European Parliament during a plenary session in 2014.

Parliamentary procedure

Accepted rules, ethics, and customs governing meetings of an assembly or organization.

Accepted rules, ethics, and customs governing meetings of an assembly or organization.

The European Parliament during a plenary session in 2014.

Parliamentary procedure also allows for rules in regards to nomination, voting, debate, disciplinary action, appeals, and the drafting of organization charters, constitutions, and bylaws.

Constitution of 3 May 1791

Constitution of 3 May 1791, by Matejko. Foreground: King Stanisław August (left) enters St John's Cathedral, in Warsaw, where deputies will swear to uphold the Constitution. Background: the Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
King Stanisław August Poniatowski, principal author of the Constitution of 3 May 1791. A year later, he acquiesced in its demise; this was seen by Constitution defenders as high treason, per the Constitution's Article VII and section six (sexto) of Article VIII, and per the Declaration of the Assembled Estates, of 5 May 1791.
In September 1773, Tadeusz Rejtan (on floor, lower right) tries to prevent ratification of the First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by barring other Sejm deputies from entering the Sejm chamber. Painting Rejtan, by Matejko.
From his election, King Stanisław August Poniatowski worked to develop an executive government council. In 1775 the Partition Sejm established a Permanent Council, after Russia's Catherine the Great concluded it would serve her purposes.
Senate Chamber of Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution of 3 May 1791 was adopted. Painting by Kazimierz Wojniakowski, 1806.
Royal Castle Senate Chamber, reconstructed after destruction in World War II
3 May Constitution, printed in Warsaw, 1791
Manuscript of the 3 May Constitution in Lithuanian
English edition, London, 1791
Ruined chapel containing cornerstone for Temple of Divine Providence, laid 3 May 1792 by King Stanisław August Poniatowski and his brother, the Catholic Primate of Poland Michał Jerzy Poniatowski, to commemorate the Constitution of 3 May 1791. Work on Temple had only begun when Poland was invaded by Russian Imperial Army. Chapel is now within Warsaw University Botanical Garden.
Medal commemorating the Constitution of 3 May 1791, issued that year

The Constitution of 3 May 1791, titled the Governance Act, was a constitution adopted by the Great Sejm ("Four-Year Sejm", meeting in 1788–92) for the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.