Constitution

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)
Constitution of the Kingdom of Naples in 1848.
Detail from Hammurabi's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.
Diagram illustrating the classification of constitutions by Aristotle.
Third volume of the compilation of Catalan Constitutions of 1585
The Cossack Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, 1710.
A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
Constitution of May 3, 1791 (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). Polish King Stanisław August (left, in regal ermine-trimmed cloak), enters St. John's Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
Presidential copy of the Russian Constitution.
Magna Carta
United States Constitution

Aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

- Constitution
Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)

83 related topics

Alpha

The Parliament of Åland

Devolution

Statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.

Statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.

The Parliament of Åland
Fort Hall Indian Casino, Idaho. Gambling is allowed within Native American reservation lands while illegal on non-reservation land geographically in the same state.

In federal systems, by contrast, sub-unit government is guaranteed in the constitution, so the powers of the sub-units cannot be withdrawn unilaterally by the central government (i.e. not through the process of constitutional amendment).

The pathway of regional integration or separation

Federation

[[File:Map of unitary and federal states.svg|thumb|upright=1.7|

[[File:Map of unitary and federal states.svg|thumb|upright=1.7|

The pathway of regional integration or separation
A map of the Russian Federation, showing its eighty-three federal subjects before the annexation of Crimea in 2014.
A map of Brazil, showing its twenty-six constituent states and the Federal District.
A map of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, showing its 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory.
A map of the United Mexican States (Mexico), showing its thirty-one constituent states and the Mexico City.
A map of the United States of America showing its fifty constituent states and the District of Columbia.
A map of Canada showing its ten provinces and three territories.
A map of Australia showing its six states and ten territories.
A political map of India showing 28 states and 8 union territories including the National Capital Territory.
A map of the Federal Republic of Germany showing its sixteen constituent states (Länder) including three city-states.
The Swiss Confederation and its 26 cantons.
The Autonomous communities of Spain.
Provinces of South Africa.
The United Provinces of Central America was a short-lived federal republic

In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision, neither by the component states nor the federal political body.

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)

Constitutionality

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)

Constitutionality is said to be the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or set forth in the applicable constitution.

Dušan's Code

Compilation of several legal systems that was enacted by Stefan Uroš IV Duš an of Serbia in 1349.

Compilation of several legal systems that was enacted by Stefan Uroš IV Duš an of Serbia in 1349.

Fresco detail of Serbian Emperor Stefan Dušan.
Proglašenje Dušanovog zakonika (The Proclamation of Dušan's Law Codex), Paja Jovanović, oil on canvas, 1900, National Museum of Serbia

It is considered an early constitution, or close to it; an advanced set of laws which regulated all aspects of life.

Golden Bull of 1356

Page from the Golden Bull manuscript of King Wenceslaus, about 1400, Austrian National Library.
The Holy Roman Empire in 1356
Imperial Diet in Metz during which the Golden Bull of 1356 was issued.
Incunable of the Golden Bull in Early New High German, late 15th century, University of Jena

The Golden Bull of 1356 (, Goldene Bulle,, Bulla Aurea, Bolla d'oro) was a decree issued by the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg and Metz (Diet of Metz, 1356/57) headed by the Emperor Charles IV which fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, important aspects of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire.

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)

Fundamental rights

Fundamental rights are a group of rights that have been recognized by a high degree of protection from encroachment.

Fundamental rights are a group of rights that have been recognized by a high degree of protection from encroachment.

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)

These rights are specifically identified in a constitution, or have been found under due process of law.

Legal systems of the world. Civil law based systems are in turquoise.

Civil law (legal system)

Legal system originating in mainland Europe and adopted in much of the world.

Legal system originating in mainland Europe and adopted in much of the world.

Legal systems of the world. Civil law based systems are in turquoise.

The Justinian Code's doctrines provided a sophisticated model for contracts, rules of procedure, family law, wills, and a strong monarchical constitutional system.

Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Putney, where the Putney Debates were held

Putney Debates

The Putney Debates were a series of discussions among the increasingly dominant New Model Army – a number of the participants being Levellers – concerning the makeup of a new constitution for Britain.

The Putney Debates were a series of discussions among the increasingly dominant New Model Army – a number of the participants being Levellers – concerning the makeup of a new constitution for Britain.

Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Putney, where the Putney Debates were held

The fundamental ideas of the Case of the Armie came to be reflected in a written constitutional draft: the Agreement of the People.

Gustav III of Sweden

Instrument of Government (1772)

Gustav III of Sweden

The 1772 Instrument of Government (regeringsform) was the constitution of the Kingdom of Sweden from 1772 to 1809.

The British Government asks travelers arriving at London Stansted Airport not to destroy their travel documents, in order to be able to adjudicate their eligibility to enter the country

Freedom of movement

Human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country, and to leave the country and return to it.

Human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country, and to leave the country and return to it.

The British Government asks travelers arriving at London Stansted Airport not to destroy their travel documents, in order to be able to adjudicate their eligibility to enter the country
European Union Freedom-of-Movement Area
Hongping, Shennongjia District - within a section of Hubei province closed to foreign visitors
An internal Israeli checkpoint near the town of Bethlehem.
Palestinians queue to pass through a checkpoint between neighborhoods in the city of Hebron.
The Svalbard area is an entirely visa-free zone.

Apart from Magna Carta, the protection of rights and liberties in this field has tended to come from the common law rather than formal constitutional codes and conventions, and can be changed by Parliament without the protection of being entrenched in a constitution.