A report on Constitution

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)
Constitution of the Kingdom of Naples in 1848.
Detail from Hammurabi's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.
Diagram illustrating the classification of constitutions by Aristotle.
Third volume of the compilation of Catalan Constitutions of 1585
The Cossack Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, 1710.
A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
Constitution of May 3, 1791 (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). Polish King Stanisław August (left, in regal ermine-trimmed cloak), enters St. John's Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
Presidential copy of the Russian Constitution.
Magna Carta
United States Constitution

Aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

- Constitution
Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)

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De l'esprit des loix, 1st edn 1748, 2 vols.

The Spirit of Law

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Treatise on political theory, as well as a pioneering work in comparative law, published in 1748 by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu.

Treatise on political theory, as well as a pioneering work in comparative law, published in 1748 by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu.

De l'esprit des loix, 1st edn 1748, 2 vols.
De l'esprit des loix, 1st edn 1748, 2 vols.

He pleads for a constitutional system of government with separation of powers, the preservation of legality and civil liberties, and the end of slavery.

The Old Parliament House on Riddarholmen was the seat of the Riksdag from 1833 to 1905.

Riksdag

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National legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden.

National legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden.

The Old Parliament House on Riddarholmen was the seat of the Riksdag from 1833 to 1905.
Kulturhuset at Sergels torg served as a temporary seat for the Riksdag, from 1971 to 1983, while the Riksdag building on Helgeandsholmen underwent renovation.
Historical distribution of seats in the Swedish Riksdag 1902-2018.
The offices of the parliament are housed in several buildings, including the former Royal Mint on Mynttorget Square.

The constitutional functions of the Riksdag are enumerated in the Instrument of Government (Regeringsformen), and its internal workings are specified in greater detail in the Riksdag Act (Riksdagsordningen).

United Kingdom

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Sovereign country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the continental mainland.

Sovereign country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the continental mainland.

Stonehenge in Wiltshire is a ring of stones, each about 13 ft high, 7 ft wide and 25 tonnes, erected 2400–2200 BC.
The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings, 1066, and the events leading to it.
The Treaty of Union led to a united kingdom of all of Great Britain.
At the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, a British-led coalition under the Duke of Wellington, supported by von Blücher's Prussian army, defeated the French, ending the Napoleonic Wars.
Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme. More than 885,000 British soldiers died on the battlefields of the First World War.
Territories once part of the British Empire, with the United Kingdom and its current Overseas Dependencies and Crown Dependencies underlined in red
Leaders of EU states in 2007. The UK entered the EEC in 1973. In a 1975 referendum 67% voted to stay in it; in 2016 52% voted to leave the EU.
The United Kingdom showing hilly regions to north and west
Köppen climate types of the UK
The Palace of Westminster, seat of both houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Organisational chart of the UK political system
The Scottish Parliament Building in Holyrood is the seat of the Scottish Parliament.
The British-Irish Council comprises the UK Government, the Irish Government and the governments of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The Royal Courts of Justice of England and Wales
The High Court of Justiciary, the supreme criminal court of Scotland
and, a pair of Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers of the Royal Navy
British soldier firing during an exercise.
The Bank of England, the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based
The Mini Electric is manufactured in the UK.
Engines and wings for the Airbus A380 are manufactured in the UK.
A Watt steam engine, which was fundamental in driving the Industrial Revolution
London St Pancras International is one of London's main domestic and international transport hubs, providing commuter and high-speed rail services across the UK and to Paris, Lille and Brussels.
Energy mix of the United Kingdom over time
Wind turbines overlooking Ardrossan, Scotland. The UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy, and wind power production is its fastest-growing supply.
Map of population density in the UK as at the 2011 census
Percentage of the population not white according to the 2011 census
Westminster Abbey
Estimated foreign-born population by country of birth from April 2007 to March 2008
Estimated number of British citizens living overseas by country in 2006
Christ Church, Oxford, is part of the University of Oxford, which traces its foundations back to c. 1096.
King's College (right) and Clare College (left), both part of the University of Cambridge, which was founded in 1209
The Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital, an NHS Scotland specialist children's hospital
The Chandos portrait, believed to depict William Shakespeare
A photograph of Victorian-era novelist Charles Dickens
Elgar aged about 60
The Beatles are the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed band in popular music, selling over a billion records.
J. M. W. Turner self-portrait, oil on canvas, c. 1799
Alfred Hitchcock has been ranked as one of the greatest and most influential British filmmakers of all time.
The Art Deco facade of Broadcasting House in London, headquarters of the BBC, the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world
Wembley Stadium, London, home of the England national football team, is the fifth most expensive stadium ever built.
The Millennium Stadium of Cardiff opened for the 1999 Rugby World Cup.
Wimbledon, the oldest Grand Slam tennis tournament, is held in Wimbledon, London every June and July.
St Andrews, Scotland, the home of golf. The standard 18 hole golf course was created at St Andrews in 1764.
The Statue of Britannia in Plymouth. Britannia is a national personification of the UK.
Test launch of a Trident II nuclear missile by a Vanguard-class submarine

The UK does not have a codified constitution and constitutional matters are not among the powers devolved to Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland.

Remains of Ras, medieval capital of Serbia (12th-13th century)

Serbia in the Middle Ages

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Serbia in the Middle Ages refers to the medieval period in the history of Serbia.

Serbia in the Middle Ages refers to the medieval period in the history of Serbia.

Remains of Ras, medieval capital of Serbia (12th-13th century)
Serbian Orthodox Monastery of Dečani, built in the 14th century
Serbian Orthodox Monastery of Gračanica
Byzantine provinces on the territory of modern Serbia during the 6th century
Principality of Serbia and other Slavic principalities in ca. 814 AD.
Seal of prince Strojimir of Serbia, from the late 9th century
Byzantine Emperor Basil I receiving delegations of Serbs and Croats
Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul in Stari Ras, finished in the 9th century
Serbian Principality in the 10th century
Icon representing prince Jovan Vladimir, the first canonized Serb
Serbs massacre the Byzantines in the mountain passes, Madrid Skylitzes.
Serbian king Mihailo Vojislavljević. Fresco in the Church of Saint Michael in Ston
Seal of Constantine Bodin (11th century)
State of Constantine Bodin (c. undefined 1090)
Fresco of the grand župan Vukan, who established the Vukanović dynasty
Serbia on the map of Europe in 1135, during the reign of Uroš I
The medieval fresco of Saint Simeon (Stefan Nemanja) in Studenica Monastery
Map of Southeastern Europe in 1265, including the Medieval Kingdom of Serbia
The Proclamation of Dušan's Law Codex, by Paja Jovanović (1900)
Map of the Serbian Empire in 1355
States that emerged after the dissolution of Serbian Empire in the second half of the 14th century
Serbian Despotate in 1421–1427
Serbian Despotate in 1455-1459
Smederevo Fortress today. With its fall in 1459, the medieval Serbian state was extinguished.
Possible representation of Serbian nobleman Paskač and his family, monastery Psača near Kriva Palanka, North Macedonia. Dated middle of the 14th century.
Representation of the Radič, the Grand Čelnik in the Vraćevšnica monastery. Radič, the nobleman and a dignitary, lived in the 15th century.
Dušan's Code, the "constitution" of the 14th century Serbia
Medieval Serbian weapons The National Museum in Požarevac
The tradition of badnjak predates the Christianization, but the custom survived being incorporated into the modern celebration of Christmas
Temnić inscription (11th century)
The futhark found in Breza, Bosnia
Miroslav Gospel, one of the oldest surviving documents written in Serbian recension of Church Slavonic, created by order of Prince Miroslav of Hum
Neumes - medieval musical notes by Serbian composer Kir Stefan the Serb, museum of Smederevo
Hemp fiber, once extensively used for the cloths by the commoners, today is rarely used as a fabric.
Serbian medieval noblewoman, National museum in Požarevac
Part of the fresco "Mourning of Anna Dandolo", which depicts noblemen in their attire
Modern rendering of the ancient cooking "under the sač"
Malvasia grapes, one of the most popular varieties in Medieval Serbia
Illustration from a 16th-century illustrated manuscript copy of the Mining Code, issued by despot Stefan Lazarević (d. 1427)
Princess Jelena Lazarević (1365-1443)
Slavic migrations to the Balkans.
Approximate location of South Slavic tribes, per V. V. Sedov 1995.

In the same year Sava issued the first constitution in Serbia, the Zakonopravilo.

The outgoing Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy (right) congratulates the incoming Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez (left) upon losing the no confidence vote on 1 June 2018.

Motion of no confidence

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Statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility (government, management, etc.) is still deemed fit to hold that position, such as because they are inadequate in some aspect, fail to carry out their obligations, or make decisions that other members feel to be detrimental.

Statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility (government, management, etc.) is still deemed fit to hold that position, such as because they are inadequate in some aspect, fail to carry out their obligations, or make decisions that other members feel to be detrimental.

The outgoing Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy (right) congratulates the incoming Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez (left) upon losing the no confidence vote on 1 June 2018.

Depending on the constitution of the body concerned, "no confidence" may lead to the dismissal of the Council of Ministers or other position-holders and often the dissolution of most of the leadership of the executive branch.

Axel Oxenstierna, Lord High Chancellor of Sweden and architect of the 1634 Instrument of Government.

Instrument of Government (1634)

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Axel Oxenstierna, Lord High Chancellor of Sweden and architect of the 1634 Instrument of Government.
King Charles XI, who in 1680 persuaded the Riksdag to repudiate the Instrument of Government and accept an absolute monarchy.

The Instrument of Government (regeringsform) of 1634 was a document describing the form and operation of the Swedish government, retrospectively regarded as the country's first constitution, although it was not intended to function as such.

Prime ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in 2014. From left: Erna Solberg, Norway; Algirdas Butkevičius, Lithuania; Laimdota Straujuma, Latvia; Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson, Iceland; Alexander Stubb, Finland; Anne Sulling, Estonia (trade minister); Helle Thorning-Schmidt, Denmark; Stefan Löfven, Sweden.

Prime minister

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Head of the cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.

Head of the cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.

Prime ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in 2014. From left: Erna Solberg, Norway; Algirdas Butkevičius, Lithuania; Laimdota Straujuma, Latvia; Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson, Iceland; Alexander Stubb, Finland; Anne Sulling, Estonia (trade minister); Helle Thorning-Schmidt, Denmark; Stefan Löfven, Sweden.
Narendra Modi, The Prime Minister of India
The prime ministers of five members of the Commonwealth of Nations at the 1944 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference.
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964), the first Prime minister of India
John A. Macdonald (1815–1891), first Canadian Prime Minister.
Sirimavo Bandaranaike (1916–2000), former Prime Minister of Sri Lanka and the first female head of government
British prime minister William Pitt (1759–1806), the youngest head of government at the age of 24.
Countries with prime ministers (blue) and those that formerly had that position (dark red + Mexico).

(Some constitutional experts have questioned whether this process is actually in keeping with the provisions of the Irish constitution, which appear to suggest that a taoiseach should remain in office, without the requirement of a renomination, unless s/he has clearly lost the general election.) The position of prime minister is normally chosen from the political party that commands majority of seats in the lower house of parliament.

Legal systems of the world. Civil law based systems are in turquoise.

Civil law (legal system)

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Legal system originating in mainland Europe and adopted in much of the world.

Legal system originating in mainland Europe and adopted in much of the world.

Legal systems of the world. Civil law based systems are in turquoise.

The Justinian Code's doctrines provided a sophisticated model for contracts, rules of procedure, family law, wills, and a strong monarchical constitutional system.

Constitution of Brazil

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The original copy of the Constitution
First version of the current Brazilian Constitution
Roberto Campos, one of the few voices to rise up against the 1988 Constitution at the time of its creation
2017 edition of the Constitution

The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil) is the supreme law of Brazil.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

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The Fundamental Orders were adopted by the Connecticut Colony council on January 24 1639.

The Fundamental Orders were adopted by the Connecticut Colony council on January 24 1639.

The Orders have the features of a written constitution and are considered by some authors to be the first written Constitution in the Western tradition.