Constitution of Bhutan

ConstitutionConstitution of 20082008 ConstitutionBhutan's ConstitutionconstitutionalConstitution DayConstitution of the Kingdom of BhutanPrivy Council of Bhutanthe Constitution
The Constitution of Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་གི་རྩ་ཁྲིམས་ཆེན་མོ་; Wylie: 'Druk-gi cha-thrims-chen-mo) was enacted 18 July 2008 by the Royal Government of Bhutan.wikipedia
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Bhutanese democracy

Bhutanese democraticBhutanese Democratic revolutiondemocratic Bhutanese politics
The Constitution was thoroughly planned by several government officers and agencies over a period of almost seven years amid increasing democratic reforms in Bhutan.
The development of Bhutanese democracy has been marked by the active encouragement and participation of reigning Bhutanese monarchs since the 1950s, beginning with legal reforms such as the abolition of slavery, and culminating in the enactment of Bhutan's Constitution.

Politics of Bhutan

Government of BhutanRoyal Government of Bhutangovernment
The Constitution of Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་གི་རྩ་ཁྲིམས་ཆེན་མོ་; Wylie: 'Druk-gi cha-thrims-chen-mo) was enacted 18 July 2008 by the Royal Government of Bhutan.
In 2008, Bhutan adopted its first modern Constitution, codifying the institutions of government and the legal framework for a democratic multi-party system.

Thromde

61 ''thromdesadministrative seatThromdes (municipalities) of Bhutan
The territory of Bhutan is divided into 20 Dzongkhags (Districts) with each consisting of Gewogs (Counties) and Thromdes (Municipalities).
The Constitution of 2008 confirmed the status of thromdes, providing for Thromde Tshogdes as the most basic level of some local government administration; for other thromdes, administration was provided directly through Dzongkhag Thromde representation by one elected member from Dzongkhag Thromdes, and a second from Dzongkhag Yenlag Thromdes.

Immigration to Bhutan

Immigration in Bhutancitizenshipcitizenship laws
Also among the Royal Prerogatives are the grants of citizenship, amnesty, pardon and reduction of sentences; and land "kidu" and other "kidus" (benefits).
The Constitution of 2008 included some changes in Bhutan's immigration laws, policy, and procedure, however prior law not inconsistent with the 2008 Constitution remained intact.

Druk Gyalpo

King of BhutanKingDruk Gyalpo of Bhutan
On 4 September 2001, King Jigme Singye Wangchuck briefed the Lhengye Zhungtshog (Council of Ministers, or Cabinet), the Chief Justice, and the Chairman of the Royal Advisory Council on the need to draft a formal Constitution for the Kingdom of Bhutan.

Judicial system of Bhutan

Chief JusticeEvidence Actjudicial system
These judicial appointments are made from among the vacant positions' peers, juniors, and available eminent jurists in consultation with the National Judicial Commission (below).
The judicial system of Bhutan is the purview of the Royal Court of Justice, the judicial branch of the government of Bhutan under the Constitution of 2008.

Privy council

Privy CouncillorPrivy CounsellorPC
The Constitution establishes a Privy Council of four persons, consisting of two members appointed by the King, one member nominated by the Lhengye Zhungtshog (Council of Ministers), and one member nominated by the National Council.

Royal Court of Justice

Royal High Court of Bhutancourtcourts
The Supreme Court of Bhutan is the guardian of the Constitution and the final authority on its interpretation. The politically independent judicial branch is the Royal Court of Justice, which is reviewed by the Supreme Court of Bhutan.
In 2008, the Constitution of Bhutan codified the substantive and procedural framework of the Royal Court of Justice.

Districts of Bhutan

Districtdzongkhagdistricts
The territory of Bhutan is divided into 20 Dzongkhags (Districts) with each consisting of Gewogs (Counties) and Thromdes (Municipalities).
They possess a number of powers and rights under the Constitution of Bhutan, such as regulating commerce, running elections, and creating local governments.

State religion

Established Churchofficial religionestablished
Thus, while religion and politics are officially separate, the Buddhist Drukpa Lineage is the state religion of Bhutan.

K. K. Venugopal

Kottayan Katankot VenugopalK.K. VenugopalK K Venugopal
Royal Government of Bhutan appointed Indian constitutional lawyer K. K. Venugopal to serve as the Constitutional adviser for drafting of the Constitution of Bhutan.
Most significantly, he was appointed by the Royal Government of Bhutan to serve as the Constitutional adviser for drafting of the Constitution of Bhutan.

Dratshang Lhentshog

Central Monk BodyCentral Monastic BodyGedun Dratshang
The Je Khenpo appoints, on the recommendation of the Dratshang Lhentshog (Commission for the Monastic Affairs), the Five Lopons from among monks with the nine qualities of a spiritual master and accomplished in ked-dzog (stages of development and completion in Vajrayana practice).
Under the 2008 Constitution, it is the bureaucracy that oversees the Drukpa Kagyu sect that is the state religion of Bhutan.

Freedom of religion in Bhutan

Religious Organizations Act
See freedom of religion in Bhutan.
The Bhutanese Constitution of 2008 and previous law provide for freedom of religion in Bhutan; however, the government has limited non-Buddhist missionary activity, barring non-Buddhist missionaries from entering the country, limiting construction of non-Buddhist religious buildings, and restricting the celebration of some non-Buddhist religious festivals.

Elections in Bhutan

BhutanElection CommissionDelimitation Commission
The King also appoints, from lists of names recommended jointly by the Prime Minister, the Chief Justice of Bhutan, the Speaker, the Chairperson of the National Council, and the Leader of the Opposition Party, four kinds of high-level Government: the Chief Election Commissioner and other members of the Election Commission; the Auditor General of the Royal Audit Authority; the Chairperson and other members of the Royal Civil Service Commission; and the Chairperson and other members of the Anti-Corruption Commission. Referenced for incorporation are the Bhutanese Audit Act, Bhutanese Civil Service Act, Bhutanese Anti-Corruption Act, and Attorney General Act; references to existing Election Laws also appear throughout the Constitution.
Parliament became bicameral under the Constitution of Kingdom of Bhutan 2008 and with the kingdom's first National Assembly election the same year.

Attorney General of Bhutan

Attorney GeneralAttorney General Actlist
Referenced for incorporation are the Bhutanese Audit Act, Bhutanese Civil Service Act, Bhutanese Anti-Corruption Act, and Attorney General Act; references to existing Election Laws also appear throughout the Constitution. The King appoints the Attorney General of Bhutan, the Chairperson of the Pay Commission, the Governor of the Central Bank of Bhutan, the Cabinet Secretary, and Bhutanese ambassadors and consuls on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.
Under the Constitution of 2008, the Attorney General is appointed by the King of Bhutan on the advice of the Prime Minister.

Bhutan

Kingdom of BhutanBhutaneseBootan
On 4 September 2001, King Jigme Singye Wangchuck briefed the Lhengye Zhungtshog (Council of Ministers, or Cabinet), the Chief Justice, and the Chairman of the Royal Advisory Council on the need to draft a formal Constitution for the Kingdom of Bhutan.
The current legal framework, in principle guarantees freedom of religion; proselytism, however, is forbidden by a royal government decision and by judicial interpretation of the Constitution.

Bhutanese legislation

legislationlegal codeslegislated
The Constitution allows Parliament to enact any such legislation as may be necessary to advance the cause of the cultural enrichment of Bhutanese society.
Acts passed predating the enactment of the Constitution in 2008 were passed under different procedures, some originating as promulgations by the King as indicated in their preamble.

Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan

Royal Monetary AuthorityCentral Bank of BhutanRoyal Monetary Authority Act
The King appoints the Attorney General of Bhutan, the Chairperson of the Pay Commission, the Governor of the Central Bank of Bhutan, the Cabinet Secretary, and Bhutanese ambassadors and consuls on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.
The Constitution of 2008 specifically authorizes the government to manage public finance and the monetary system, affirming previous law.

Capital punishment in Bhutan

capital punishment
All persons are guaranteed freedom from torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; capital punishment; arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence; arbitrary arrest or detention; and from unlawful attacks on the person's honour and reputation.
Capital punishment in Bhutan was abolished on March 20, 2004 and is prohibited by the 2008 Constitution.

Health in Bhutan

basic public health servicesFood Actfree healthcare
It must also provide free access to basic public health services in both modern and traditional medicines; and encourage free participation in the cultural life of the community, promote arts and sciences and foster technological innovation.
The Constitution of Bhutan charges the Royal Government with ensuring a "safe and healthy environment," and with providing "free access to basic public health services in both modern and traditional medicines".

Tibetan dual system of government

dual system of governmentChhoe-sid-nyiduality of power
The Constitution establishes the "Chhoe-sid-nyi" (dual system of religion and politics) of Bhutan as unified in the person of the King who, as a Buddhist, is the upholder of the Chhoe-sid (religion and politics; temporal and secular).
The Constitution of Bhutan, enacted in 2008, confirms Bhutan's commitment to the Cho-sid-nyi system.

Gross National Happiness

Bhutan GNH IndexGNHGross National Happiness Index
It strives to promote conditions that will enable the pursuit of Gross National Happiness.
Gross National Happiness is instituted as the goal of the government of Bhutan in the Constitution of Bhutan, enacted on 18 July 2008.

Je Khenpo

Je Khenpo of BhutanChief AbbotJe Khempo
The King also appoints the Je Khenpo (below) as the spiritual leader of Bhutan.
In 2008, the office of the Je Khenpo was codified as part of the Constitution of Bhutan.

Supreme Court of Bhutan

Supreme CourtChief JusticeChief Justice of the Supreme Court of Bhutan
The politically independent judicial branch is the Royal Court of Justice, which is reviewed by the Supreme Court of Bhutan.
The Supreme Court of Bhutan is the Kingdom of Bhutan's highest court of review and interpreter of the Constitution.

Council of Ministers (Bhutan)

Lhengye ZhungtshogCouncil of MinistersCabinet Minister
On 4 September 2001, King Jigme Singye Wangchuck briefed the Lhengye Zhungtshog (Council of Ministers, or Cabinet), the Chief Justice, and the Chairman of the Royal Advisory Council on the need to draft a formal Constitution for the Kingdom of Bhutan.
Under Article 20 of the Constitution of Bhutan, executive power is vested in the Lhengye Zhungtshog, consisting of the Ministers headed by the Prime Minister.