Constitution of Ireland

ConstitutionIrish Constitution1937 ConstitutionConstitutionalnew constitutiona new constitutionits constitutionthe ConstitutionArticle 41 of the Irish Constitutionthe current constitution
The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann, ) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland.wikipedia
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Republic of Ireland

IrelandIrishRepublic
The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann, ) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland.
It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and effectively became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.

Adoption of the Constitution of Ireland

adopted by plebiscitereferendum1937 enactment
It came into force on 29 December 1937 following a statewide plebiscite held on 1 July 1937.
The current Constitution of Ireland came into effect on 29 December 1937, repealing and replacing the Constitution of the Irish Free State, having been approved in a national plebiscite on 1 July 1937 with the support of 56.5% of voters in the then Irish Free State.

Constitution of the Irish Free State

1922 ConstitutionFree State constitutionIrish Free State Constitution
It is the second constitution of the Irish state since independence, replacing the 1922 Constitution of the Irish Free State. The Constitution of Ireland replaced the Constitution of the Irish Free State which had been in effect since the independence, as a dominion, of the Irish state from the United Kingdom on 6 December 1922.
In 1937 the Constitution of the Irish Free State was replaced by the modern Constitution of Ireland following a referendum.

Éamon de Valera

de ValeraEamon De ValeraEamonn De Valera
This element, led by Éamon de Valera, formed the Fianna Fáil party in 1926, which entered into government following the 1932 general election.
He also led the introduction of the Constitution of Ireland.

Oireachtas of the Irish Free State

OireachtasFree State OireachtasFree State legislators
After 1932, under the provisions of the Statute of Westminster, some of the articles of the original Constitution which were required by the Anglo-Irish Treaty were dismantled by acts of the Oireachtas of the Irish Free State.
The Oireachtas of the Irish Free State were disbanded by the 1937 Constitution of Ireland which created the modern Oireachtas Éireann.

Irish language

IrishGaelicIrish Gaelic
It was translated into Irish over a number of drafts by a group headed by Micheál Ó Gríobhtha (assisted by Risteárd Ó Foghludha), who worked in the Irish Department of Education.
Irish has constitutional status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland and is an officially recognised minority language in Northern Ireland.

1937 Irish general election

1937 general election1937July 1937
The draft constitution was then put to a plebiscite on 1 July 1937 (the same day as the 1937 general election), when it was passed by a plurality.
A plebiscite on whether to approve the new Constitution of Ireland was held on the same day.

Dominion

DominionsBritish Dominiondominion status
The Constitution of Ireland replaced the Constitution of the Irish Free State which had been in effect since the independence, as a dominion, of the Irish state from the United Kingdom on 6 December 1922.
In 1937 Ireland adopted, almost simultaneously, both a new constitution that included powers for a president of Ireland and a law confirming a role for the king in external relations.

Dáil Éireann (Irish Free State)

Dáil ÉireannDáilFree State Dáil
Prior to its tabling in Dáil Éireann and presentation to the Irish electorate in a plebiscite, Vatican Secretary of State Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli, the future Pope Pius XII, said of the final amended draft: "We do not approve, neither do we disapprove; We shall maintain silence."
The Free State Dáil ceased to be with the creation of the modern 'Dáil Éireann' under the terms of the 1937 Constitution of Ireland.

John Charles McQuaid

Archbishop McQuaidJohn McQuaidMcQuaid
He also received significant input from The Rt Rev. John Charles Monsignor McQuaid, the then President of Blackrock College, on religious, educational, family and social welfare issues.
He would later influence de Valera in drafting the modern Irish constitution (Bunreacht na hÉireann).

President of Ireland

PresidentIrish PresidentPresidents of Ireland
It provides for a directly elected, largely ceremonial President of Ireland (Article 12), a head of government called the Taoiseach (Article 28), and a national parliament called the Oireachtas (Article 15).
The office was established by the Constitution of Ireland in 1937, the first president took office in 1938, and became internationally recognised as head of state in 1949 following the coming into force of the Republic of Ireland Act.

Council of State (Ireland)

Council of StateArticle 26 of the ConstitutionIrish Council of State
The Council of State (an Chomhairle Stáit ) is a body established by the Constitution of Ireland to advise the President of Ireland in the exercise of many of his or her discretionary, reserve powers.

Government of Ireland

Irish GovernmentgovernmentCabinet
During a national emergency the Oireachtas may pass laws that would otherwise be unconstitutional, and the actions of the executive cannot be found to be ultra vires or unconstitutional provided they at least "purport" to be in pursuance of such a law.
The Constitution of Ireland vests executive authority in a government which is headed by the Taoiseach, the head of government.

Amendments to the Constitution of Ireland

amendmentamendment to the Constitution of Irelandamended
A proposal to amend the Constitution of Ireland must first be approved by both Houses of the Oireachtas (parliament), then submitted to a referendum, and finally signed into law by the President of Ireland.

Attorney General of Ireland

Attorney GeneralAttorney-GeneralAttorney-General of the Irish Free State
;1968: A draft report was produced by a legal committee, chaired by the Attorney General Colm Condon.
The office and functions of the Attorney General are outlined in Article 30 of the Constitution of Ireland.

Names of the Irish state

name of the stateBritish objections to the name "Irelandchanged the name of the state
The use in English of Éire, the Irish-language name of the state, is deprecated.
In 1937 it adopted a new constitution which claimed all of the island of Ireland as its territory with the state's name becoming Ireland in English and Éire in Irish, although the latter was often used in English too.

Taoiseach

Taoiseach of IrelandTaoisighPrime Minister of Ireland
It provides for a directly elected, largely ceremonial President of Ireland (Article 12), a head of government called the Taoiseach (Article 28), and a national parliament called the Oireachtas (Article 15).
The word taoiseach means "chief" or "leader" in Irish and was adopted in the 1937 Constitution of Ireland as the title of the "head of the Government, or Prime Minister".

Flag of Ireland

Irish tricolourIrish flagtricolour
The flag's use was continued by the Irish Free State (1922–1937) and it was later given constitutional status under the 1937 Constitution of Ireland.

Dáil Éireann

DáilDail EireannDail
The Oireachtas has a dominant directly elected lower house known as Dáil Éireann (Article 16) and an upper house Seanad Éireann (Article 18), which is partly appointed, partly indirectly elected and partly elected by a limited electorate.
Subject to the limits imposed by the Constitution of Ireland, it has power to pass any law it wishes, and to nominate and remove the Taoiseach (head of government).

Court of Appeal (Ireland)

Court of AppealCourt of Appeal of IrelandIrish Court of Appeal
The superior courts provided under the Courts of Justice Act 1924 and the 1937 constitution were the High Court and the Supreme Court.

Seanad Éireann

SenatorSeanadSenators
The Oireachtas has a dominant directly elected lower house known as Dáil Éireann (Article 16) and an upper house Seanad Éireann (Article 18), which is partly appointed, partly indirectly elected and partly elected by a limited electorate.

Comptroller and Auditor General (Ireland)

Comptroller and Auditor General
The office of Comptroller and Auditor General was established under Article 33 of the Constitution of Ireland.

Courts of the Republic of Ireland

Irish courtsJudiciaryCircuit Court
There are four sources of law in Ireland: the Constitution, European Union law, statute law and the common law.

Supreme Court of Ireland

Supreme CourtIrish Supreme CourtSupreme Court of Justice
There is also an independent judiciary headed by the Supreme Court (Article 34).
The Supreme Court also has jurisdiction to ensure compliance with the Constitution of Ireland by governmental bodies and private citizens.

The Irish Times

Irish TimesIpsos MRBI/Irish TimesRite and Reason
The Irish Times criticised the constitution's assertion of a territorial claim on Northern Ireland, and the absence in its text of any reference to the British Commonwealth.
The magazine accused the editor Geraldine Kennedy and the Irish Times board of violating the Defence Act which prohibits any kind of advertising for recruitment for a foreign army and article 15.6.1 of the Constitution of Ireland which states "The right to raise and maintain military or armed forces is vested exclusively in the Oireachtas".