A report on Constitution of Japan

Preamble of the Constitution
The constitution of Japan was largely drafted by US lawyers in the occupation authority. This image is of a secret memo written by members of the authority on the subject of the new constitution.
The Preamble to the Constitution
The Imperial Signature (upper right) and Seal
The Constitution of Japan signed by Emperor Showa and Ministers of State
Politics under the Post-war Constitution

Constitution of Japan and the supreme law in the state.

- Constitution of Japan
Preamble of the Constitution

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Emperor of Japan

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Monarch and the head of the Imperial Family of Japan.

Monarch and the head of the Imperial Family of Japan.

Emperor Go-Daigo
The first arrival of Emperor Meiji to Edo (1868).
Masako, Empress Consort of Japan from 2019
Conjectural images of the Imperial Regalia of Japan.
Enthronement ceremony of Emperor Naruhito with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe (22 October 2019)
Entrance of the Musashi Imperial Graveyard in Hachiōji, Tokyo
Tokyo Imperial Palace
Emperor Shows Hirohito was the Japanese Emperor during World War Two and after
Tokyo Imperial Palace

Under the Constitution of Japan, he is defined as the symbol of the Japanese state and the unity of the Japanese people, and his position is derived from "the will of the people with whom resides sovereign power".

Japan

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Island country in East Asia.

Island country in East Asia.

Legendary Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇)
Samurai warriors battling Mongols during the Mongol invasions of Japan, depicted in the
Emperor Meiji (明治天皇); 1852–1912
Japan's imperial ambitions ended on September 2, 1945, with the country's surrender to the Allies.
The Japanese archipelago
Mount Fuji in Spring, view from Arakurayama Sengen Park
Autumn maple leaves at Kongōbu-ji on Mount Kōya, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The National Diet Building
Japan is a member of both the G7 and the G20.
JMSDF class destroyer
The Tokyo Stock Exchange
A rice paddy in Aizu, Fukushima Prefecture
A plug-in hybrid car manufactured by Toyota. Japan is the third-largest maker of motor vehicles in the world.
The Japanese Experiment Module (Kibō) at the International Space Station
Japan Airlines, the flag carrier of Japan
The Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant
The Greater Tokyo Area is ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world.
The torii of Itsukushima Shinto Shrine near Hiroshima
Kanji and hiragana signs
Students celebrating after the announcement of the results of the entrance examinations to the University of Tokyo
12th-century illustrated handscroll of The Tale of Genji, a National Treasure
Noh performance at a Shinto shrine
Young ladies celebrate Coming of Age Day (成人の日) in Harajuku, Tokyo
A plate of nigiri-zushi
Sumo wrestlers form around the referee during the ring-entering ceremony
Japanese samurai boarding a Mongol vessel during the Mongol invasions of Japan, depicted in the, 1293
Skyscrapers in Nakanoshima, Osaka; a major financial centre in Japan

After suffering defeat in the Pacific War and two atomic bombings, Japan surrendered in 1945 and came under a seven-year Allied occupation, during which it adopted a new constitution and began a military alliance with the United States.

Preamble of the Constitution

Meiji Constitution

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The constitution of the Empire of Japan which was proclaimed on February 11, 1889, and remained in force between November 29, 1890 and May 2, 1947.

The constitution of the Empire of Japan which was proclaimed on February 11, 1889, and remained in force between November 29, 1890 and May 2, 1947.

Preamble of the Constitution
Meiji Constitution promulgation by Toyohara Chikanobu
Itō Hirobumi and Emperor Meiji (Servet-i Fünun 25 October 1894 front page)
Schematic overview of the government structure under the Constitution
Memorial in Yokohama

During the American Occupation of Japan the Meiji Constitution was replaced on November 3, 1946, becoming the "Postwar Constitution", which has been in force since May 3, 1947.

Occupation of Japan

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Military occupation of Japan in the years immediately following Japan's defeat in World War II.

Military occupation of Japan in the years immediately following Japan's defeat in World War II.

Map of Japan under Allied occupation
 
# Japanese archipelago, placed under the authority of the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (de facto United States), effective 1945–1952 (Note: Part of Japanese territories were put under US' administration after 1952 in accordance with Article 3 of San Francisco Peace Treaty: Iwo Jima (till 1968) and Okinawa (till 1972), such arrangement was treaty based, not part of the Allied Occupation)
# Japanese Taiwan and the Spratly Islands, placed under the authority of China
# Karafuto Prefecture and the Kuril Islands, placed under the authority of the Soviet Union
# Japanese Korea south of the 38th parallel north, placed under the authority of the United States Army Military Government in Korea, granted independence in 1948 as South Korea
# Japanese Korea north of the 38th parallel north, placed under the authority of the Soviet Civil Administration, granted independence in 1948 as North Korea
# Kwantung Leased Territory, occupied by the Soviet Union 1945–1955, returned to China in 1955
# South Pacific Mandate, occupied by the United States 1945–1947, converted into the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1947
May 1946: The Indian Army 2nd Battalion 5th Royal Gurkha Rifles march through Kure, Hiroshima soon after their arrival in Japan.
Nihonbashi, Tokyo, in 1946
Gaetano Faillace's famous photo of Douglas MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito
The Japanese government releases members of the Japanese Communist Party on October 10, 1945.
Hideki Tōjō takes the stand at the Tokyo war crimes tribunal.
Joseph Dodge meets Finance Minister Hayato Ikeda in 1949
Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida signs the Treaty of San Francisco, which brought an end to the Allied Occupation of Japan.
Allied servicemen visit the Special Comfort Facility Association.

In 1947, a sweeping amendment to the Meiji Constitution was passed which effectively repealed it in its entirety and replaced it with a new, American-written constitution, and the emperor's theoretically vast powers, which for many centuries had been constrained only by conventions that had evolved over time, became strictly limited by law.

Kuroda Kiyotaka, Satsuma samurai and prime minister in the late 1880s, coined the term "transcendentalism" (超然主義, chōzen shugi) on the occasion of the promulgation of the Meiji Constitution in 1889. The oligarchs should try to "transcend" electoral politics and govern without partisan majorities the House of Representatives

House of Representatives (Japan)

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Lower house of the National Diet of Japan.

Lower house of the National Diet of Japan.

Kuroda Kiyotaka, Satsuma samurai and prime minister in the late 1880s, coined the term "transcendentalism" (超然主義, chōzen shugi) on the occasion of the promulgation of the Meiji Constitution in 1889. The oligarchs should try to "transcend" electoral politics and govern without partisan majorities the House of Representatives
Itō Hirobumi, a Chōshū samurai, member of the House of Peers and prime minister of Japan on three non-consecutive occasions between 1885 and 1901. He was a main architect of the Imperial Constitution which created the Imperial Diet. When the oligarchs attempts to govern "transcendentally" mostly failed in the 1890s, he saw the necessity for permanent allies among elected political parties.
Hara Takashi, although actually himself born a Morioka noble, made his career as commoner-politician and became the first and one of only three prime ministers from the House of Representatives in the Empire
Shigeru Yoshida, prime minister 1946-1947 as a member of the House of Peers and 1948-1954 as a member of the House of Representatives, oversaw the end of the American-led occupation and the beginning of the Japanese economic miracle.
The current seating arrangement within the chamber by party.
Shinzo Abe, prime minister 2006-2007 and again 2012-2020, was the longest-serving PM in Japanese history.

The composition of the House is established by Article 41 (ja) and Article 42 (ja) of the Constitution of Japan.

House of Representatives

National Diet

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Japan's bicameral parliament.

Japan's bicameral parliament.

House of Representatives
House of Councillors
The waiting room adjacent to the Cabinet Room at the National Diet Building
The First Japanese Diet Hall (1890–91).
National Diet Hiroshima Temporary Building (1894).
The Second Japanese Diet Hall (1891–1925).
National Diet Building (1930).
National Diet Building (2017).

The Diet was first convened as the Imperial Diet in 1890 under the Meiji Constitution, and took its current form in 1947 upon the adoption of the post-war constitution.

Sailors of the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force, one of the de facto military forces ostensibly permitted under Article 9.

Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution

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Sailors of the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force, one of the de facto military forces ostensibly permitted under Article 9.
A demonstration in favor of maintaining Article 9, in front of Tabata Station, in Tokyo. (2012)
Nobori flags held by a group of pro-Article 9 demonstrators and their police escort, near Ginza. (2014)

Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution (日本国憲法第9条) is a clause in the national Constitution of Japan outlawing war as a means to settle international disputes involving the state.

Empire of Japan

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The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, and of the Imperial Japanese Navy
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
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Prominent members of the Iwakura mission. Left to right: Kido Takayoshi, Yamaguchi Masuka, Iwakura Tomomi, Itō Hirobumi, Ōkubo Toshimichi
Emperor Meiji, the 122nd emperor of Japan
Ōura Church, Nagasaki
Interior of the Japanese Parliament, showing the Prime Minister speaking addressing the House of Peers, 1915
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, who was twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military and political foundations of early modern Japan.
Baron Masuda Tarokaja, a member of the House of Peers (Kazoku). His father, Baron Masuda Takashi, was responsible for transforming Mitsui into a zaibatsu.
The Tokyo Industrial Exhibition, 1907 (Mitsubishi pavilion and Exhibition halls)
Marunouchi District in 1920, looking towards the Imperial Palace
A 1-yen banknote, 1881
Thomas Blake Glover was a Scottish merchant in Bakumatsu and received Japan's second highest order from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan's industrialization.
Prince Katsura Tarō, thrice Prime Minister and the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan. Katsura commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Map of the Japanese Empire in 1895. This map was issued shortly after the Japanese invasion of Taiwan and is consequently one of the first Japanese maps to include Taiwan as a possession of Imperial Japan.
Marquess Komura Jutaro, 1911. Komura became Minister for Foreign Affairs under the first Katsura administration, and signed the Boxer Protocol on behalf of Japan.
French illustration of a Japanese assault on entrenched Russian troops during the Russo-Japanese War
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
Count Tadasu Hayashi was the resident minister to the United Kingdom. While serving in London from 1900, he worked to successfully conclude the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and signed on behalf of the government of Japan on January 30, 1902.
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after its capitulation in 1905. From left are the wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruisers Pallada
Emperor Taishō, the 123rd emperor of Japan
Topographic map of the Empire of Japan in November, 1918
Native Micronesian constables of Truk Island, circa 1930. Truk became a possession of the Empire of Japan under a mandate from the League of Nations following Germany's defeat in World War I.
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
Groundbreaking ceremony of Ginza Line, the oldest subway line in Asia, 1925. Front row, right to left: Rudolf Briske, Noritsugu Hayakawa, Furuichi Kōi, Ryutaro Nomura.
Count Itagaki Taisuke is credited as being the first Japanese party leader and an important force for liberalism in Meiji Japan.
Count Katō Komei, the 14th Prime Minister of Japan from June 11, 1924, until his death on January 28, 1926
Emperor Shōwa during an Army inspection on January 8, 1938
Tokyo Kaikan was requisitioned as the meeting place for members of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) in the early days.
Japanese Pan-Asian writer Shūmei Ōkawa
Rebel troops assembling at police headquarters during the February 26 Incident
A bank run during the Shōwa financial crisis, March 1927
National Diet Building, 1930
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region, 1939
Japanese troops entering Shenyang, Northeast China during the Mukden Incident, 1931
The Japanese occupation of Peiping (Beijing) in China, on August 13, 1937. Japanese troops are shown passing from Peiping into the Tartar City through Zhengyangmen, the main gate leading onward to the palaces in the Forbidden City.
IJN Special Naval Landing Forces armed with the Type 11 Light Machine Gun during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Signing ceremony for the Axis Powers Tripartite Pact
Founding ceremony of the Hakkō ichiu (All the world under one roof) monument in 1940
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Victorious Japanese troops march through the city center of Singapore following the city's capture in February 1942 (Photo from the Imperial War Museum)
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers are landing during the Battle of Palembang, February 13, 1942.
A model representing the attack by dive bombers from USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) on the Japanese aircraft carriers, and in the morning of June 4, 1942, during the Battle of Midway
Group of Type 2 Ka-Mi tanks on board of 2nd class transporter of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1944–1945
The rebuilt battlecruiser sank at her moorings in the naval base of Kure on July 24 during a series of bombings.
The Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula in 1945 (National Geographic)
A drawing depicting a speech in the Imperial Japanese Diet on November 1, 1945, the end of the Second World War. In the foreground there are several Allied soldiers watching the proceedings from the back of the balcony.
From left to right: Marshal Admiral Heihachirō Tōgō (1848–1934), Field Marshal Oku Yasukata (1847–1930), Marshal Admiral Yoshika Inoue (1845–1929), Field Marshal Kageaki Kawamura (1850–1926), at the unveiling ceremony of bronze statue of Field Marshal Iwao Ōyama
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1920).
Population density map of the Empire of Japan (1940).
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval ensign of the Empire of Japan
Flag of the Japanese Emperor

The Empire of Japan, (大日本帝国) also known as the Japanese Empire or Imperial Japan, was a historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II 1947 constitution and subsequent formation of modern Japan.

The Emperor in 1935

Hirohito

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The 124th emperor of Japan, ruling from 25 December 1926 until his death in 1989.

The 124th emperor of Japan, ruling from 25 December 1926 until his death in 1989.

The Emperor in 1935
Hirohito in 1902 as an infant
Emperor Taishō's four sons in 1921: Hirohito, Takahito, Nobuhito and Yasuhito
The Crown Prince watches a boat race at Oxford University in the UK in 1921
In May 1921, he visited Edinburgh, Scotland
Prince Hirohito and British Prime Minister Lloyd George, 1921
Prince Hirohito and his wife, Princess Nagako, in 1924
Imperial Standard as Emperor
Emperor Hirohito after his enthronement ceremony in 1928, dressed in sokutai
The Emperor on his favorite white horse Shirayuki (lit. 'white-snow')
Emperor Hirohito riding Shirayuki during an Army inspection on 8 January 1938
The Emperor as head of the Imperial General Headquarters on 29 April 1943
The Emperor with his wife Empress Kōjun and their children on 7 December 1941
Emperor Hirohito on the battleship Musashi, 24 June 1943.
Gaetano Faillace's photograph of General MacArthur and the Emperor at Allied General Headquarters in Tokyo, 27 September 1945
Emperor Hirohito visiting Hiroshima in 1947. The domed Hiroshima Peace Memorial can be seen in the background.
US President Richard Nixon with Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kōjun in Anchorage (27 September 1971)
Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kōjun arriving in the Netherlands (8 October 1971).
The Empress, First Lady Betty Ford, the Emperor, and President Gerald Ford at the White House before a state dinner held in honor of the Japanese head of state for the first time. 2 October 1975.
Emperor Shōwa in his laboratory (1950)
Hirohito's tomb in the Musashi Imperial Graveyard, Hachiōji, Tokyo
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region in 1939

The Constitution of Japan of 1947 declared the Emperor to be a mere "symbol of the State... deriving his position from the will of the people in whom resides sovereign power."

The Dai-Ichi Seimei Building which served as SCAP headquarters, c. undefined 1950

Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers

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The title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the United States-led Allied occupation of Japan following World War II.

The title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the United States-led Allied occupation of Japan following World War II.

The Dai-Ichi Seimei Building which served as SCAP headquarters, c. undefined 1950

Some of these personnel effectively wrote a first draft of the Japanese Constitution, which the National Diet then ratified after a few amendments.