Constitution of Japan

ConstitutionJapanese Constitution1947 constitutionpostwar constitutionJapan's constitutionPeace Constitutionconstitutionalnew constitutionpost-war constitutionconstitutionality
The Constitution of Japan (Shinjitai: 日本国憲法 Kyūjitai: 日本國憲法) is the fundamental law of Japan.wikipedia
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Emperor of Japan

EmperorMonarchJapanese Emperor
Under its terms, the Emperor of Japan is "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people" and exercises a purely ceremonial role without the possession of sovereignty. In theory, the Emperor of Japan was the supreme ruler, and the cabinet, whose prime minister was elected by a privy council, were his followers; in practice, the Emperor was head of state but the Prime Minister was the actual head of government.
Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people."

Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution

Article 9Article 9 groupArticle 9 of the Constitution
The constitution, also known as the "Post-war Constitution" or the "Peace Constitution", is best known for its Article 9, by which Japan renounces its right to wage war; and to a lesser extent, the provision for de jure popular sovereignty in conjunction with the monarchy.
Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution (日本国憲法第9条) is a clause in the national Constitution of Japan outlawing war as a means to settle international disputes involving the state.

Empire of Japan

JapaneseJapanImperial Japan
The Meiji Constitution was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan, propagated during the reign of Emperor Meiji ((r.
The Empire of Japan was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

Beate Sirota Gordon

Beate Sirota
The articles about equality between men and women were written by Beate Sirota.
She was the former Performing Arts Director of the Japan Society and the Asia Society and was one of the last surviving members of the team that worked under Douglas MacArthur to write the Constitution of Japan after World War II.

Occupation of Japan

occupationJapanoccupied Japan
The constitution was drawn up during the Allied occupation that followed World War II and was intended to replace Japan's previous militaristic system of quasi-absolute monarchy with a form of liberal democracy.
Japan's postwar constitution, adopted under Allied supervision, included a "Peace Clause", Article 9, which renounced war and banned Japan from maintaining any armed forces.

Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers

American occupation authoritiesSCAPGHQ
The wording of the Potsdam Declaration—"The Japanese Government shall remove all obstacles ..."—and the initial post-surrender measures taken by Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP), suggest that neither he nor his superiors in Washington intended to impose a new political system on Japan unilaterally.
Some of these personnel effectively wrote a first draft of the Japanese Constitution, which the National Diet then ratified after a few amendments.

Head of state

heads of statechief of stateheads of states
In theory, the Emperor of Japan was the supreme ruler, and the cabinet, whose prime minister was elected by a privy council, were his followers; in practice, the Emperor was head of state but the Prime Minister was the actual head of government. The Emperor carries out most functions of a head of state, formally appointing the Prime Minister and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, convoking the National Diet and dissolving the House of Representatives, under the advice of the Cabinet, and also promulgating statutes and treaties and exercising other enumerated functions.
Example 3 (parliamentary non-executive monarchy): Article 1 of the Constitution of Japan states:

Milo Rowell

Much of the drafting was done by two senior army officers with law degrees: Milo Rowell and Courtney Whitney, although others chosen by MacArthur had a large say in the document.
Lt. Col. Milo E. Rowell (July 25, 1903 - October 7, 1977) was an American lawyer and Army officer best known for his role in drafting the Constitution of Japan.

Kenpō Fukyū Kai

A government organisation, the Kenpō Fukyū Kai ("Constitution Popularisation Society"), was established to promote the acceptance of the new constitution among the populace.
The Kenpō Fukyū Kai (ja:憲法普及協会) was a Japanese group founded in 1946 to promote the reformed Constitution of Japan.

Article 96 of the Japanese Constitution

Article 96
One was the extreme difficulty of amending it. Amendments require approval by two-thirds of the members of both houses of the National Diet before they can be presented to the people in a referendum (Article 96).
Article 96 of the Japanese Constitution is a clause in the national Constitution of Japan specifying the process for making amendments.

Meiji Constitution

Constitution of the Empire of JapanconstitutionJapanese law during the Meiji period
The Meiji Constitution was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan, propagated during the reign of Emperor Meiji ((r. It contains the Emperor's Privy Seal and signature, and is countersigned by the Prime Minister and other Ministers of State as required by the previous constitution of the Empire of Japan.
Through the regular procedure for amendment of the Meiji Constitution, it was entirely revised to become the "Postwar Constitution" on November 3, 1946, which has been in force since May 3, 1947.

Supreme Court of Japan

Supreme CourtHigh CourtJapan's supreme court
The Emperor carries out most functions of a head of state, formally appointing the Prime Minister and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, convoking the National Diet and dissolving the House of Representatives, under the advice of the Cabinet, and also promulgating statutes and treaties and exercising other enumerated functions.
It has ultimate judicial authority to interpret the Japanese constitution and decide questions of national law (including local bylaws).

Imperial House of Japan

YamatoImperial FamilyJapanese imperial family
The budget for the maintenance of the Imperial House is managed by resolution of the Diet.
Under the present Constitution of Japan, the Emperor is "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people".

National Diet

DietImperial DietJapanese Diet
The Emperor carries out most functions of a head of state, formally appointing the Prime Minister and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, convoking the National Diet and dissolving the House of Representatives, under the advice of the Cabinet, and also promulgating statutes and treaties and exercising other enumerated functions. The budget for the maintenance of the Imperial House is managed by resolution of the Diet. Under Article 73 the new constitution was formally submitted to the Imperial Diet by the Emperor, through an imperial rescript issued on 20 June.
The Diet took its current form in 1947 upon the adoption of the post-war constitution, which considers it the highest organ of state power.

Japan Self-Defense Forces

JSDFSelf-Defense ForcesJapanese military
Unlike other constitutional monarchies, he is not even the nominal chief executive or even the nominal commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces (JSDF). The necessity and practical extent of Article 9 has been debated in Japan since its enactment, particularly following the establishment of the Japan Self-Defence Forces (JSDF), a de facto post-war Japanese military force that substitute for the pre-war Armed Forces, since 1 July 1954.
In addition, under Article 9 of the United States–written 1947 constitution, Japan forever renounces war as an instrument for settling international disputes and declares that Japan will never again maintain "land, sea, or air forces or other war potential."

Courtney Whitney

Brigadier-General Courtney WhitneyWhitney
Much of the drafting was done by two senior army officers with law degrees: Milo Rowell and Courtney Whitney, although others chosen by MacArthur had a large say in the document.
With Lt. Col. Milo Rowell, he drafted the Constitution of Japan and sent it to the Diet for approval.

Censorship in Japan

censorshipcanceledcensored
Freedom of assembly, association, speech, and secrecy of communications: All guaranteed without qualification by Article 21, which forbids censorship.
In Japan, Article 21 of the Japanese Constitution guarantees freedom of expression and prohibits formal censorship.

Prime Minister of Japan

Prime MinisterJapanese Prime MinisterPrime Ministers
The Emperor carries out most functions of a head of state, formally appointing the Prime Minister and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, convoking the National Diet and dissolving the House of Representatives, under the advice of the Cabinet, and also promulgating statutes and treaties and exercising other enumerated functions. It contains the Emperor's Privy Seal and signature, and is countersigned by the Prime Minister and other Ministers of State as required by the previous constitution of the Empire of Japan.
It took its current form with the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947.

Imperial Household Law

1947 Imperial Household LawArticle 5Chapter 1: Article 1
Succession to the Chrysanthemum Throne is regulated by the Imperial Household Law and is managed by a ten-member body called the Imperial Household Council.
The revised statute is clearly subordinate to the Constitution of Japan, which went into effect on May 3, 1947.

Chrysanthemum Throne

Imperial ThronethroneImperial succession
Succession to the Chrysanthemum Throne is regulated by the Imperial Household Law and is managed by a ten-member body called the Imperial Household Council.
The current Constitution of Japan considers the Emperor as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people."

Douglas MacArthur

General MacArthurMacArthurGeneral Douglas MacArthur
The wording of the Potsdam Declaration—"The Japanese Government shall remove all obstacles ..."—and the initial post-surrender measures taken by Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP), suggest that neither he nor his superiors in Washington intended to impose a new political system on Japan unilaterally.
In 1946, MacArthur's staff drafted a new constitution that renounced war and stripped the Emperor of his military authority.

Jōji Matsumoto

Matsumoto Jōji
In late 1945, Shidehara appointed Jōji Matsumoto, state minister without portfolio, head of a blue-ribbon committee of Constitutional scholars to suggest revisions.
Their proposals (i.e. the “Matsumoto Proposal”) were immediately rejected as being too conservative, and a draft of what later became the post-war Constitution of Japan prepared by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers was issued instead.

House of Peers (Japan)

House of PeersUpper HouseHouse of Lords
After both chambers had made amendments the House of Peers approved the document on 6 October; the House of Representatives adopted it in the same form the following day, with only five members voting against, and became law when it received the Emperor's assent on 3 November 1946.
After World War II, under the current Constitution of Japan, in effect from 3 May 1947, the unelected House of Peers was replaced by an elected House of Councillors.

Armed Forces of the Empire of Japan

Japanese forcesJapanese militaryJapanese Imperial Forces
The necessity and practical extent of Article 9 has been debated in Japan since its enactment, particularly following the establishment of the Japan Self-Defence Forces (JSDF), a de facto post-war Japanese military force that substitute for the pre-war Armed Forces, since 1 July 1954.
The Armed Forces of the Empire of Japan during that Empire's existence from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 through the Second World War until the signing of the Constitution of Japan (1868–1947) included the:

Japanese people

JapaneseJapanethnic Japanese
This is proclaimed in the name of the "Japanese people" and declares that "sovereign power resides with the people" and that:
Article 10 of the Constitution of Japan defines the term "Japanese" based upon Japanese nationality.