Constitution of New Zealand

Queen Elizabeth II is the sovereign of New Zealand
Parliament is central to New Zealand's democratic constitution.
The Treaty of Waitangi is an increasingly important source of constitutional law in New Zealand.

Sum of laws and principles that determine the political governance of New Zealand.

- Constitution of New Zealand

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Monarchy of New Zealand

The Queen wearing her New Zealand insignia
Elizabeth II is the reigning sovereign of each of the 15 Commonwealth realms.
Charles, Prince of Wales, (pictured in New Zealand, 2015) is the heir apparent to the throne.
The Queen on a 2009 coin of the Cook Islands
Executive Councillors with Governor-General Dame Patsy Reddy (front, centre), 26 October 2017
The Queen, accompanied by Prince Philip, is greeted with a pōwhiri before addressing a crowd. Waitangi, December 1953.
King George VI speaks with a RNZAF Flight Lieutenant Les Munro at RAF Scampton, 27 May 1943
Queen Elizabeth II wore a korowai (woven Māori cloak) during her first tour of New Zealand in 1953–54.
New Zealand shilling coin, 1933, featuring a profile of King George V on the obverse
Queen Elizabeth II's personal flag for New Zealand, used solely by her in her capacity as Queen of New Zealand
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Charles, Prince of Wales, greets a crowd in Westport, 7 November 2015
A statue of Queen Victoria in Queens Gardens, Dunedin

The monarchy of New Zealand is the constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of New Zealand.

Constitution Act 1986

The Constitution Act 1986 is an Act of the New Zealand Parliament that forms a major part of the constitution of New Zealand.

Letters Patent Constituting the Office of Governor-General of New Zealand

9 October 1981, Jamaran, Tehran; Ruhollah Khomeini as supreme leader of Iran signs presidential decree of Ali Khamenei.

The Letters Patent Constituting the Office of Governor-General of New Zealand is a royal decree and a part of the uncodified New Zealand constitution.

Separation of powers

Separation of powers refers to the division of a state's government into branches, each with separate, independent powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with those of the other branches.

John Locke
Montesquieu
George Washington at Constitutional Convention of 1787, signing of U.S. Constitution

New Zealand's constitution is based on the principle of separation of powers through a series of constitutional safeguards, many of which are tacit.

New Zealand

Island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

Detail from a 1657 map showing the western coastline of Nova Zeelandia (in this map, North is at the bottom).
The Māori people descend from Polynesians whose ancestors emigrated from Taiwan to Melanesia between 3000 and 1000 BCE and then travelled east, reaching the Society Islands c. 1000 CE. After a pause of 200 to 300 years, a new wave of exploration led to the discovery and settlement of New Zealand.
Map of the New Zealand coastline as Cook charted it on his first visit in 1769–70. The track of the Endeavour is also shown.
The Waitangi sheet from the Treaty of Waitangi
A meeting of European and Māori inhabitants of Hawke's Bay Province. Engraving, 1863.
A statue of Richard Seddon, the "Beehive" (Executive Wing), and Parliament House (right), in Parliament Grounds, Wellington.
Māori Battalion haka in Egypt, 1941
Anzac Day service at the National War Memorial
Map of regions (coloured) and territorial authorities (outlined) in New Zealand.
The snow-capped Southern Alps dominate the South Island, while the North Island's Northland Peninsula stretches towards the subtropics.
The endemic flightless kiwi is a national icon.
The giant Haast's eagle died out when humans hunted its main prey, the moa, to extinction.
Waterfront along Auckland CBD, a major hub of economic activity
Milford Sound / Piopiotahi is one of New Zealand's most famous tourist destinations.
Wool has historically been one of New Zealand's major exports.
A Boeing 787–9 Dreamliner of Air New Zealand, the flag carrier of New Zealand
Population pyramid (2017)
Pedestrians on Queen Street in Auckland, an ethnically diverse city
A Rātana church on a hill near Raetihi. The two-tower construction is characteristic of Rātana buildings.
Portrait of Hinepare of Ngāti Kahungunu by Gottfried Lindauer, showing chin moko, pounamu hei-tiki and woven cloak
The Hobbiton Movie Set, located near Matamata, was used for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy.
A haka performed by the national rugby union team ("All Blacks") before a game. The haka is a challenge with vigorous movements and stamping of the feet.
Ingredients to be prepared for a hāngi
Rural scene near Queenstown
Hokitika Gorge, West Coast
The Emerald Lakes, Mt Tongariro
Lake Gunn
Pencarrow Head, Wellington

New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy, although its constitution is not codified.

Electoral Act 1993

Act of the New Zealand Parliament for regulating elections in New Zealand.

A graphic representation of the legislative procedure in the United Kingdom.

The Electoral Act forms part of the constitution of New Zealand.

New Zealand Constitution Act 1852

The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 (15 & 16 Vict.

The 1852 Constitution Act established the Provinces of New Zealand.

The Act remained in force as part of New Zealand's constitution until it was repealed by the Constitution Act 1986.

Independence of New Zealand

Matter of continued academic and social debate.

Captain William Hobson was New Zealand's first British-appointed Governor (originally Lieutenant-Governor) 1840–1842.
Lord Plunket declaring New Zealand a Dominion, 26 September 1907
Zealandia rejecting Australian Constitution in 1900.
King George V with his prime ministers at the Imperial Conference of 1926
An old New Zealand passport, 1949, bearing the title "British Passport" with "Dominion of New Zealand" underneath.
The current flag of New Zealand features the British Union Jack in its left upper quadrant.

New Zealand has no fixed date of independence from the United Kingdom; instead, political independence came about as a result of New Zealand's evolving constitutional status.

New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990

Statute of the Parliament of New Zealand setting out the rights and fundamental freedoms of anyone subject to New Zealand law as a bill of rights.

It is part of New Zealand's uncodified constitution.

New Zealand First

Nationalist and populist political party in New Zealand.

Winston Peters founded the party in 1993
Original party logo (1993–2017)
SuperGold Card, a flagship policy

The party refers to the Treaty as a "source of national pride" but does not support it becoming a part of constitutional law.