Constitutional Convention (United States)

Constitutional ConventionPhiladelphia ConventionConstitutional Convention of 17871787 Constitutional ConventionU.S. Constitutional ConventionUnited States Constitutional ConventionFederal ConventionFramers of the ConstitutionconventionFramers
The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia.wikipedia
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Philadelphia

Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia, PACity of Philadelphia
The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia.
Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, and the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.

Alexander Hamilton

HamiltonHamiltonianA. Hamilton
Although the Convention was intended to revise the league of states and first system of government under the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one.
Hamilton was a leader in seeking to replace the weak national government under the Articles of Confederation; he led the Annapolis Convention of 1786, which spurred Congress to call a Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.

James Madison

MadisonPresident MadisonPresident James Madison
Although the Convention was intended to revise the league of states and first system of government under the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one.
He became dissatisfied with the weak national government established by the Articles of Confederation and helped organize the Constitutional Convention, which produced a new constitution to supplant the Articles of Confederation.

Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual UnionConfederationArticles
Although the Convention was intended to revise the league of states and first system of government under the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. This alliance, the United States, was to be governed according to the Articles of Confederation, which was more of a treaty between independent countries than a national constitution.
This became the Constitutional Convention.

History of the United States Constitution

ratification of the United States ConstitutionratificationConstitutional Convention
The completed proposed Constitution was then released to the public to begin the debate and ratification process.
The document was written at the 1787 Philadelphia Convention and was ratified through a series of state conventions held in 1787 and 1788.

Connecticut Compromise

Great Compromisecompromise on representationConnecticut Compromise (USA)
Progress was slow until mid-July, when the Connecticut Compromise resolved enough lingering arguments for a draft written by the Committee of Detail to gain acceptance.
The Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman Compromise) was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution.

William Paterson (judge)

William PatersonPatersonJudge William Paterson
Several broad outlines were proposed and debated, most notably James Madison's Virginia Plan and William Paterson's New Jersey Plan.
He represented New Jersey at the 1787 Philadelphia Convention, where he proposed the New Jersey Plan, which would have provided for equal representation among the states in Congress.

New Jersey Plan

Several broad outlines were proposed and debated, most notably James Madison's Virginia Plan and William Paterson's New Jersey Plan.
The New Jersey Plan (also known as the Small State Plan or the Paterson Plan) was a proposal for the structure of the United States Government presented by William Paterson at the Constitutional Convention on June 15, 1787.

Committee of Detail

Progress was slow until mid-July, when the Connecticut Compromise resolved enough lingering arguments for a draft written by the Committee of Detail to gain acceptance.
The Committee of Detail was a committee established by the United States Constitutional Convention on July 24, 1787 to put down a draft text reflecting the agreements made by the Convention up to that point, including the Virginia Plan's 15 resolutions.

United States Congress

CongressU.S. CongressCongressional
The most contentious disputes revolved around the composition and election of the Senate as the upper legislative house of a bicameral Congress; whether "proportional representation" was to be defined by a state's geography or by its population, and whether slaves were to be counted; whether to divide the executive power among three people or vest the power in a single chief executive to be called the President; how a president would be elected, for what term, and whether to limit each president to a single term in office; what offenses should be impeachable; the nature of a fugitive slave clause, and whether to allow the abolition of the slave trade; and whether judges should be chosen by the legislature or the executive.
Government powerlessness led to the Convention of 1787 which proposed a revised constitution with a two–chamber or bicameral congress.

Virginia Plan

a plan
Several broad outlines were proposed and debated, most notably James Madison's Virginia Plan and William Paterson's New Jersey Plan.
The plan was drafted by James Madison while he waited for a quorum to assemble at the Constitutional Convention of 1787.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
This alliance, the United States, was to be governed according to the Articles of Confederation, which was more of a treaty between independent countries than a national constitution.
Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States Constitution, ratified in state conventions in 1788.

William Jackson (secretary)

William Jackson
Although William Jackson was elected as secretary, his records were brief and included very little detail.
William Jackson (March 9, 1759 – December 17, 1828) was a figure in the American Revolution, most noteworthy as the secretary to the United States Constitutional Convention.

Founding Fathers of the United States

Founding FathersFounding FatherFounding Father of the United States
These and other issues greatly worried many of the Founders that the Union as it existed up to that point was in danger of breaking apart.
Washington was Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and was president of the Constitutional Convention.

Shays' Rebellion

Shays's RebellionShays RebellionShays’ Rebellion
When the government of Massachusetts refused to enact similar relief legislation, rural farmers resorted to violence in Shays' Rebellion (1786–1787).
The widely held view was that the Articles of Confederation needed to be reformed as the country's governing document, and the events of the rebellion served as a catalyst for the Constitutional Convention and the creation of the new government.

Independence Hall

Pennsylvania State HouseState HouseIndependence Square
The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia.
It became the principal meeting place of the Second Continental Congress from 1775 to 1783 and was the site of the Constitutional Convention in the summer of 1787.

Elbridge Gerry

Elbridge T. GerryMr. GerryDeath of Elbridge Gerry
The 1776 "old republican" delegates like Elbridge Gerry (MA) found anything military or hereditary anathema.
He was one of three men who attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787 who refused to sign the United States Constitution because it did not then include a Bill of Rights.

Edmund Randolph

Edmund Jennings RandolphMr. RandolphEdmund J. Randolph
On May 29, Edmund Randolph, the governor of Virginia, presented the Virginia Plan to the Convention.
He was the seventh Governor of Virginia, and as a delegate from Virginia, attended the Constitutional Convention, helping to create a national constitution.

Society of the Cincinnati

Society of CincinnatiThe Society of the CincinnatiOrder of Cincinnatus
Outside the Convention in Philadelphia, there was a national convening of the Society of the Cincinnati.
When delegates to the Constitutional Convention were debating the method of choosing a president, James Madison (the secretary of the Convention) reported the following speech of Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts:

Rufus King

KingKing, RufusRufus King of New York
Quotas of contribution appealed to southern delegates because they would include slave property, but Rufus King of Massachusetts highlighted the impractical side of such a scheme.
He was a delegate for Massachusetts to the Continental Congress and the Philadelphia Convention and was one of the signers of the United States Constitution in 1787.

George Mason

George Mason IVaddressedMason
George Mason of Virginia said the lower house was "to be the grand depository of the democratic principle of the government."
George Mason IV ( – October 7, 1792) was an American planter, politician and delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, one of three delegates who refused to sign the Constitution.

Pierce Butler

Pierce Mease ButlerSenator Pierce Butler
Pierce Butler of South Carolina believed that only wealthy men of property could be trusted with political power.
He served as a state legislator, a member of the Congress of the Confederation, a delegate to the 1787 Constitutional Convention, and a member of the United States Senate.

Gouverneur Morris

Gouvernor MorrisGouveneur Morrisauthor
On May 30, the Convention agreed, at the request of Gouverneur Morris, "that a national government ought to be established consisting of a supreme Legislative, Executive and Judiciary".
He represented Pennsylvania at the 1787 Constitutional Convention, where he advocated a strong central government.

Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787

copious notestook extensive notes
Madison's Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787, supplemented by the notes of Robert Yates, remain the most complete record of the Convention.
Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 was James Madison's record of the daily debates held by delegates at the Philadelphia Convention, which resulted in the drafting of the current United States Constitution.

Three-Fifths Compromise

three-fifths clausethree-fifthsThree Fifths Compromise
Working with John Rutledge of South Carolina, Wilson proposed the Three-Fifths Compromise on June 11.
The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise reached among state delegates during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention.