Constitutional Convention (United States)

Independence Hall's Assembly Room
James Madison, the author of the Virginia Plan
Virginia Plan
Charles Pinckney Plan
Edmund Randolph, the Governor of Virginia, introduced the Virginia Plan
James Wilson's ideas shaped the American presidency more than any other delegate
New Jersey Plan
Hamilton's Plan
Roger Sherman of Connecticut
Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania
Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy (1940)
U.S. Postage, Issue of 1937, depicting Delegates at the signing of the Constitution, engraving after a painting by Junius Brutus Stearns
Quaker John Dickinson argued forcefully against slavery during the convention. Once Delaware's largest slaveholder, he had freed all of his slaves by 1787.

The Constitutional Convention took place in Philadelphia from May 25 to September 17, 1787.

- Constitutional Convention (United States)

500 related topics

Relevance

Independence Hall in Philadelphia, where the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution were both debated and ratified

Independence Hall

Historic civic building in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in which both the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted by America's Founding Fathers.

Historic civic building in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in which both the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted by America's Founding Fathers.

Independence Hall in Philadelphia, where the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution were both debated and ratified
Detail of A Map of Philadelphia and Parts Adjacent, depicting the State House as it appeared in 1752. The image shows the original bell tower, which lacked a clock.
The Liberty Bell (foreground) was housed in the highest chamber of the brick tower
Robert Edge Pine's painting Congress Voting Independence depicts the Assembly Room as it appeared in the Revolutionary era
The Assembly Room, in which both the Declaration of Independence and Constitution were drafted and signed.
The Artist in His Museum, an 1822 self-portrait by Charles Willson Peale depicts his museum at the Old State House (The Long Room is shown in the background).
Independence Hall in 1799, with the wooden steeple removed
The Governor's Council Chamber
The Supreme Court Room
Tower Stair Hall
1956 U.S. postal stamp
1974 U.S. postal stamp
Reverse of the 1975-1976 Kennedy half dollar
U.S. $2 bill.
2006 U.S. $100 bill.

It became the principal meeting place of the Second Continental Congress from 1775 to 1783 and was the site of the Constitutional Convention in the summer of 1787.

Territorial growth of the United States, 1810–1920

History of the United States

The history of the lands that became the United States began with the arrival of the first people in the Americas around 15,000 BC. Numerous indigenous cultures formed, and many saw transformations in the 16th century away from more densely populated lifestyles and towards reorganized polities elsewhere.

The history of the lands that became the United States began with the arrival of the first people in the Americas around 15,000 BC. Numerous indigenous cultures formed, and many saw transformations in the 16th century away from more densely populated lifestyles and towards reorganized polities elsewhere.

Territorial growth of the United States, 1810–1920
This map shows the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites (Clovis theory).
The Cultural areas of pre-Columbian North America, according to Alfred Kroeber.
Grave Creek Mound, located in Moundsville, West Virginia, is one of the largest conical mounds in the United States. It was built by the Adena culture.
Monks Mound of Cahokia (UNESCO World Heritage Site) in summer. The concrete staircase follows the approximate course of the ancient wooden stairs.
Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The K'alyaan Totem Pole of the Tlingit Kiks.ádi Clan, erected at Sitka National Historical Park to commemorate the lives lost in the 1804 Battle of Sitka.
Leif Erikson discovers America by Christian Krohg, 1893
The Mayflower, which transported Pilgrims to the New World. During the first winter at Plymouth, about half of the Pilgrims died.
Squanto known for having been an early liaison between the native populations in Southern New England and the Mayflower settlers, who made their settlement at the site of Squanto's former summer village.
The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth, 1914, Pilgrim Hall Museum, Plymouth, Massachusetts
Indians trade 90-lb packs of furs at a Hudson's Bay Company trading post in the 19th century.
The Indian massacre of Jamestown settlers in 1622. Soon the colonists in the South feared all natives as enemies.
John Gadsby Chapman, Baptism of Pocahontas (1840), on display in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol.
Map of the British and French settlements in North America in 1750, before the French and Indian War
Join, or Die: This 1756 political cartoon by Benjamin Franklin urged the colonies to join during the French and Indian War.
An 1846 painting of the 1773 Boston Tea Party
The population density in the American Colonies in 1775.
Washington's surprise crossing of the Delaware River in December 1776 was a major comeback after the loss of New York City; his army defeated the British in two battles and recaptured New Jersey.
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence (1819)
The United States after the Treaty of Paris (1783), with individual state claims and cessions through 1802
Economic growth in America per capita income. Index with 1700 set as 100.
George Washington's legacy remains among the greatest in American history, as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, hero of the Revolution, and the first President of the United States. (by Gilbert Charles Stuart)
Depiction of election-day activities in Philadelphia (by John Lewis Krimmel, 1815)
Slaves Waiting for Sale: Richmond, Virginia (by Eyre Crowe)
Thomas Jefferson saw himself as a man of the frontier and a scientist; he was keenly interested in expanding and exploring the West.
Territorial expansion; Louisiana Purchase in white.
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began with: "We have met the enemy and they are ours" (by William H. Powell, 1865)
A drawing of a Protestant camp meeting (by H. Bridport, c. 1829)
"Independence Day Celebration in Centre Square, Philadelphia" (by John Lewis Krimmel, 1819)
Settlers crossing the Plains of Nebraska (by C.C.A. Christensen, 19th century)
The Indian Removal Act resulted in the transplantation of several Native American tribes and the Trail of Tears.
Henry Clay
Horace Greeley's New York Tribune—the leading Whig paper—endorsed Clay for President and Fillmore for Governor, 1844.
Officers and men of the Irish-Catholic 69th New York Volunteer Regiment attend Catholic services in 1861.
The California Gold Rush news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad.
The American occupation of Mexico City in 1848
The United States, immediately before the Civil War. All of the lands east of, or bordering, the Mississippi River were organized as states in the Union, but the West was still largely inhabited by Native Americans.
The Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864.
Lincoln with Allan Pinkerton and Major General John Alexander McClernand at the Battle of Antietam.
Freedmen voting in New Orleans, 1867.
Atlanta's railyard and roundhouse in ruins shortly after the end of the Civil War
The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad (1869) at First Transcontinental Railroad, by Andrew J. Russell
Scottish immigrant Andrew Carnegie led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry.
Mulberry Street, along which Manhattan's Little Italy is centered. Lower East Side, circa 1900. Almost 97% of residents of the 10 largest American cities of 1900 were non-Hispanic whites.
This cartoon reflects the view of Judge magazine regarding America's imperial ambitions following a quick victory in the Spanish–American War of 1898. The American flag flies from the Philippines and Hawaii in the Pacific to Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean.
American children of many ethnic backgrounds celebrate noisily in a 1902 Puck cartoon.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman (pictured) wrote these articles about feminism for the Atlanta Constitution, published on December 10, 1916.
The American Cemetery at Romagne-sous-Montfaucon
Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol in Chicago, 1921.
Money supply decreased a lot between Black Tuesday and the Bank Holiday in March 1933 when there were massive bank runs across the United States.
Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven, age 32, in Nipomo, California, March 1936.
Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas (left) and US President Franklin D. Roosevelt (right) in 1936
The Japanese crippled American naval power with the attack on Pearl Harbor, destroying many battleships.
Into the Jaws of Death: The Normandy landings began the Allied march toward Germany from the west.
American corpses sprawled on the beach of Tarawa, November 1943.
The Trinity test of the Manhattan Project was the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
Cuban Missile Crisis a U-2 reconnaissance photograph of Cuba, showing Soviet nuclear missiles, their transports and tents for fueling and maintenance.
Eisenhower button from the 1952 campaign
President Kennedy's Civil Rights Address, June 11, 1963.
U.S. soldiers searching a village for potential Viet Cong during the Vietnam War
Buzz Aldrin (shown) and Neil Armstrong became the first people to walk on the Moon during NASA's 1969 Apollo 11 mission
Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. (right) with President Lyndon B. Johnson in the background (left)
Duncan West speaking with Cesar Chavez. The Delano UFW rally. Duncan represented the Teamsters who were supporting the UFW and condemning their IBT leadership for working as thugs against a fellow union. Duncan and his wife Mary were the branch organizers of the LA IS.
Anti-Vietnam War demonstration, 1967
Two hippies at Woodstock
United States Navy F-4 Phantom II shadows a Soviet Tu-95 Bear D aircraft in the early 1970s
U.S. Senator Edmund Muskie speaking at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia on Earth Day, 1970
Richard Nixon departs
Ronald Reagan at the Brandenburg Gate challenges Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall in 1987, shortly before the end of the Cold War.
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
Clinton, Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993.
The NASDAQ Composite index swelled with the dot-com bubble in the optimistic "New Economy". The bubble burst in 2000.
The former World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during September 11 attacks in 2001
George W. Bush addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations on September 12, 2002, to outline the complaints of the United States government against the Iraqi government.
Headquarters of the Lehman Brothers, who filed for bankruptcy in September 2008 at the height of the U.S. financial crisis.
Tea Party protesters walk towards the United States Capitol during the Taxpayer March on Washington, September 12, 2009.
Barack Obama was the first African-American president of the United States
The White House lit with rainbow colors in celebration of the legalization of gay marriage
A man stands on a burned out car following protests over the murder of George Floyd
President Donald Trump delivering his inaugural address, 2017
A naval officer checks on a patient connected to a ventilator in Baton Rouge during the COVID-19 pandemic

A convention wrote a new Constitution that was adopted in 1789 and a Bill of Rights was added in 1791 to guarantee inalienable rights.

Portrait by John Trumbull, 1806

Alexander Hamilton

American revolutionary, statesman and Founding Father of the United States.

American revolutionary, statesman and Founding Father of the United States.

Portrait by John Trumbull, 1806
Coat of arms of the Hamiltons of Grange in Ayrshire, Scotland.
The Hamilton House, Charlestown, Nevis. The current structure was rebuilt from the ruins of the house where it was thought that Alexander Hamilton was born and lived as a young child.
Hamilton in his youth
Kings College c. 1756, adjacent to the New York Commons where City Hall Park is today
Alexander Hamilton in the Uniform of the New York Artillery, by Alonzo Chappel (1828–1887)
Aides-de-camp's office inside Washington's Headquarters at Valley Forge. General Washington's staff officers worked in this room, writing and copying the letters and orders of the Continental Army.
The Storming of Redoubt #10, an 1840 painting by Eugene Lami
Detail of Surrender of Lord Cornwallis by John Trumbull, showing Colonels Alexander Hamilton, John Laurens, and Walter Stewart
Miniature of Hamilton attributed to Charles Shirreff, c. 1790
A Turban Head eagle, one of the first gold coins minted under the Coinage Act of 1792
A painting of a Revenue Marine cutter, which may be of either the Massachusetts (1791), or its replacement, the Massachusetts II
Portrait of Alexander Hamilton by Walter Robertson. Circa 1794
A statue of Hamilton by Franklin Simmons, overlooking the Great Falls of the Passaic River in Paterson, New Jersey, where Hamilton envisioned using the falls to power new factories
The Jay Treaty
Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792
Aaron Burr, Hamilton and Philip Schuyler strolling on Wall Street, New York, 1790
Alexander Hamilton by William J. Weaver, ca. 1794-1806
A statue of Hamilton in the United States Capitol rotunda
Detail of 1802 portrait by Ezra Ames, painted after death of Hamilton's eldest son Philip
Hamilton's tomb in Trinity Church's first burial grounds at Wall Street and Broadway in Lower Manhattan
Drawing (c. 1902) of the Burr–Hamilton duel, from a painting by J. Mund
This July 25, 1804 article reflected extreme lamentation over Hamilton's death, and described the plan for his funeral procession and other tributes, including a 30-day wearing of a commemorative black armband ("crape") by members of the Society of the Cincinnati of Pennsylvania of which Hamilton had been President General.
Elizabeth Schuyler, portrait by Ralph Earl
Distinctive unit insignia of the United States Army 1st Battalion, 5th Field Artillery Regiment (i.e. Alexander Hamilton Battery). The crest at center is that of Clan Hamilton, with the addition of 13 gold acorns representing the original 13 states.
USCGC Hamilton (WMSL 753) seal. The two colors on the coat of arms represent the aspects of Alexander Hamilton's life: military and civilian. The white demarcation line is a virtual diagram of the trenches converging on the British redoubt #10 at Yorktown. Surmounting the crossed bayonets symbolizing Hamilton's taking of the redoubt is a Doric column which represents Hamilton's service as a statesman. The crest shows an ermine cinquefoil, which is the principal charge on the Hamilton family coat of arms and is worn by a unicorn, taken from the hand-carved powder horn Hamilton is believed to have owned. The motto, "Vigilant Sentinel," is derived from a quote in Federalist No. 12: "A few armed vessels, judiciously stationed at the entrance of our ports, might at a small expense be made useful sentinels of the law."
A starboard view of the nuclear-powered strategic missile submarine USS Alexander Hamilton (SSBN-617) underway.
Alexander Hamilton on the Series 2004A U.S. $10 bill
$2
$5
$10
$20
$50
$1,000
Hamilton stamp, 1870 issue
The Hamilton Grange National Memorial in St. Nicholas Park
A statue of Hamilton outside Hamilton Hall, overlooking Hamilton Lawn at Columbia University in New York City
The Hamilton statue in Central Park
Image of the statue of Alexander Hamilton created by William Ordway Partridge, commissioned for the Hamilton Club of Brooklyn. The statue later stood in front of Hamilton Grange when the house was located at 287 Convent Ave.
A view of the Alexander Hamilton Bridge from the south
Lin-Manuel Miranda performs the title role in the 2015 musical Hamilton.

Hamilton was a leader in seeking to replace the weak confederal government under the Articles of Confederation; he led the Annapolis Convention of 1786, which spurred Congress to call a Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, where he then served as a delegate from New York.

Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.

Constitution of the United States

Supreme law of the United States of America.

Supreme law of the United States of America.

Page one of the officially engrossed copy of the Constitution signed by delegates. A print run of 500 copies of the final version preceded this copy.
Signing of the Constitution, September 17, 1787 (1940 by Howard Chandler Christy)
Dates the 13 states ratified the Constitution
x120px
"We the People" in an original edition
Closing endorsement section of the United States Constitution
United States Bill of Rights
Currently housed in the National Archives.
John Jay, 1789–1795
John Marshall, 1801–1835
Salmon P. Chase {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Chase Court, 1864–1873, in 1865 were Salmon P. Chase (chief Justice); Hon. Nathan Clifford, Maine; Stephen J. Field, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Hon. Samuel F. Miller, U.S. Supreme Court; Hon. Noah H. Swayne, Justice Supreme Court, U.S.; Judge Morrison R. Waite}}
William Howard Taft {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Taft Court, 1921–1930, in 1925 were James Clark McReynolds, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., William Howard Taft (chief justice), Willis Van Devanter, Louis Brandeis. Edward Sanford, George Sutherland, Pierce Butler, Harlan Fiske Stone}}
Earl Warren {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Warren Court, 1953–1969, in 1963 were Felix Frankfurter; Hugo Black; Earl Warren (chief justice); Stanley Reed; William O. Douglas. Tom Clark; Robert H. Jackson; Harold Burton; Sherman Minton}}
William Rehnquist {{refn|group= lower-alpha|The Rehnquist Court, 1986–2005.}}
José Rizal
Sun Yat-sen

According to the United States Senate: "The Constitution's first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. For over two centuries the Constitution has remained in force because its framers wisely separated and balanced governmental powers to safeguard the interests of majority rule and minority rights, of liberty and equality, and of the federal and state governments."

Philadelphia

Major city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States.

Major city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States.

Benjamin Franklin, 1777
Independence Hall on Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th Streets in Philadelphia, where the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were ratified on July 4, 1776 and June 21, 1788, respectively
An 18th-century map of Philadelphia, circa 1752
Sentinel-2 true-color image of Philadelphia and the Delaware River, September 2020
This 1683 portrait of Philadelphia, created by Thomas Holme, is believed to be the first map ever developed of the city of Philadelphia
Center City Philadelphia's contrasting architectural styles can be seen in One Liberty Place, built between 1985 and 1987 (in the background), and Philadelphia City Hall, built between 1871 and 1901 (in the foreground), July 2009
Philadelphia's Fairmount Park along the Schuylkill River, circa 1900
Map of racial distribution in Philadelphia, 2010 Census. Each dot is 25 people:
Philadelphia's famed Italian Market, part of South Philadelphia's Italian heritage, June 2006
"Leacht Cuimhneacháin na Gael", an Irish famine memorial at Penn's Landing honors the large Irish community (14.2% of the city's population), April 2015
Gayborhood street sign, near Washington Square, April 2007
Philadelphia Episcopal Cathedral of the Episcopal Diocese of Pennsylvania, April 2010
Interior of the Cathedral Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul, built in the 1860s
The Philadelphia Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the United States, October 2009
FMC Tower at Cira Centre South, July 2018
William Penn Charter School, established in 1689, is the oldest Quaker school in the nation
The campus of the University of Pennsylvania, an Ivy League university in Philadelphia and one of the highest ranked universities in the world, November 2005
Medical Hall housing at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, the oldest medical school in the United States
Philadelphia Museum of Art, April 2010
Keys To Community, a bust of Ben Franklin by James Peniston, 2007
Kimmel Center, home of the Philadelphia Orchestra
Curtis Institute of Music, one of the world's premier conservatories
Pat's Steaks and Geno's Steaks in Philadelphia, August 2010
The Flyers play at the Wells Fargo Center, March 2014
Historic Boathouse Row at night on the Schuylkill, a symbol of the city's rich rowing history
Old City Hall served as Philadelphia's town hall from 1800 to 1854.
James A. Byrne United States Courthouse houses the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit and the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
Jim Kenney, the current and 99th Mayor of Philadelphia
Police Administration Building (the Roundhouse) in Center City, east of Chinatown
Mounted police officer in Center City, 1973
A Philadelphia police cruiser on Benjamin Franklin Parkway
Inquirer Building at 400 North Broad Street was home of The Philadelphia Inquirer, the third longest continuously published newspaper in the United States, until 2012. It is currently undergoing renovations to become the new headquarters of the Philadelphia Police Department.
Original studio for WCAU, Philadelphia's NBC affiliate, 1622 Chestnut Street
2016 photo of 30th Street Station, which accommodates both SEPTA regional and Amtrak national trains. 30th Street Station is Amtrak's third busiest train station in the nation.
Market–Frankford Line train departing 52nd Street station
Philadelphia International Airport, the busiest airport in Pennsylvania and 21st busiest in the nation
Traffic heading into Philadelphia on Interstate 95 during the morning rush hour, July 2008
The Ben Franklin Bridge, which connects Philadelphia and Camden, New Jersey
Suburban Station with art deco architecture at 16th Street and JFK Boulevard
Fairmount Water Works, Philadelphia's second municipal waterworks
Chinatown paifang at 10th and Arch (2013), a symbol of Philadelphia's friendship with Tianjin. Philadelphia is experiencing significant Chinese immigration from New York City, 95 miles to the north, and from China.
The Birth of Pennsylvania, 1680, by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris – William Penn, holding paper, and King Charles II
Penn's Treaty with the Indians by Benjamin West
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence – the Committee of Five presents their draft in Independence Hall, June 28, 1776.<ref>John Hazelton, The Historical Value of Trumbull's: Declaration of Independence, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, volume 31 (Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1907), 38.</ref>
President's House – the presidential mansion of George Washington and John Adams, 1790–1800
Opening day ceremonies at the Centennial Exposition at Memorial Hall, 1876 – first official World's fair in the United States
Elfreth's Alley, "Our nation's oldest residential street", 1702–1836<ref name="marker">Historical marker on Elfreth's Alley</ref>
Carpenters' Hall exhibiting Georgian architecture, 1770–1774
Second Bank of the United States exhibiting Greek Revival architecture, 1818–1824
Second Empire-style Philadelphia City Hall, 1871–1901, from South Broad Street
The grand concourse of the 30th Street Station, in Art Deco style, 1927–1933
The University of Pennsylvania Medical School, the oldest medical school in the United States

The U.S. Constitution was later ratified in Philadelphia at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.

William Paterson (judge)

New Jersey statesman and a signer of the United States Constitution.

New Jersey statesman and a signer of the United States Constitution.

Paterson's eldest daughter, Cornelia Bell Paterson Van Rensselaer (1780–1844), painted by Nathaniel Rogers, 1825
Paterson's granddaughter, Euphemia White Van Rensselaer (1816–1888), painted by George P. A. Healy, 1842

He represented New Jersey at the 1787 Philadelphia Convention, where he proposed the New Jersey Plan, which would have provided for equal representation among the states in Congress.

Virginia Plan

The Virginia Plan

The Virginia Plan (also known as the Randolph Plan, after its sponsor, or the Large-State Plan) was a proposal to the United States Constitutional Convention for the creation of a supreme national government with three branches and a bicameral legislature.

An artist's depiction of the rebellion: Shays' troops repulsed from the armory at Springfield, Massachusetts in early 1787

Shays' Rebellion

Armed uprising in Western Massachusetts and Worcester in response to a debt crisis among the citizenry and in opposition to the state government's increased efforts to collect taxes both on individuals and their trades.

Armed uprising in Western Massachusetts and Worcester in response to a debt crisis among the citizenry and in opposition to the state government's increased efforts to collect taxes both on individuals and their trades.

An artist's depiction of the rebellion: Shays' troops repulsed from the armory at Springfield, Massachusetts in early 1787
Populist Governor John Hancock refused to crack down on tax delinquencies and accepted devalued paper currency for debts.
Artist's depiction of protesters watching a debtor in a scuffle with a tax collector by the courthouse at Springfield, Massachusetts. The insurrection was a tax-related rebellion.
Governor James Bowdoin instituted a heavy tax burden and stepped up a collection of back taxes.
Militia general William Shepard defended the Springfield Armory against rebel action.
General Benjamin Lincoln, portrait by Henry Sargent
This monument marks the spot of the final battle of Shays' Rebellion in Sheffield, Massachusetts.
The 1787 Constitutional Convention by Junius Brutus Stearns, 1856
Elbridge Gerry (1861 portrait by James Bogle) opposed the Constitution as drafted, although his reasons for doing so were not strongly influenced by the rebellion.

The widely held view was that the Articles of Confederation needed to be reformed as the country's governing document, and the events of the rebellion served as a catalyst for the Constitutional Convention and the creation of the new government.

In 1868, this committee of representatives prosecuted President Andrew Johnson in his impeachment trial, but the Senate did not convict him.

United States Congress

Legislature of the federal government of the United States.

Legislature of the federal government of the United States.

In 1868, this committee of representatives prosecuted President Andrew Johnson in his impeachment trial, but the Senate did not convict him.
The 1940 painting Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, depicting George Washington presiding over the signing of the United States Constitution.
United States Congress c. 1915
Historical graph of party control of the Senate, House, and Presidency. Since 1980, the Democrats have held the Presidency for four terms, but because of the Senate filibuster, have only been able to freely legislate in two years. The Republicans have been similarly disabled.
Congress's "power of the purse" authorizes taxing citizens, spending money, and printing currency.
Congress authorizes defense spending such as the purchase of the USS Bon Homme Richard (CV-31).
Congress oversees other government branches, for example, the Senate Watergate Committee, investigating President Nixon and Watergate, in 1973–74.
View of the United States Capitol from the United States Supreme Court building
The impeachment trial of President Clinton in 1999, Chief Justice William Rehnquist presiding
Second committee room in Congress Hall in Philadelphia
Library of Congress Jefferson Building
Lobbying depends on cultivating personal relationships over many years. Photo: Lobbyist Tony Podesta (left) with former senator Kay Hagan (center) and her husband.
An Act of Congress from 1960.
The House Financial Services committee meets. Committee members sit in the tiers of raised chairs, while those testifying, and audience members sit below.
In this example, the more even distribution is on the left and the gerrymandering is presented on the right.
The Federalist Papers argued in favor of a strong connection between citizens and their representatives.

Government powerlessness led to the Convention of 1787 which proposed a revised constitution with a two–chamber or bicameral Congress.

December 23, 1783: General George Washington Resigning His Commission by John Trumbull (1822–1824)

Congress of the Confederation

The governing body of the United States of America from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789.

The governing body of the United States of America from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789.

December 23, 1783: General George Washington Resigning His Commission by John Trumbull (1822–1824)

The Philadelphia Convention, under the presidency of former General George Washington instead of a series of amendments, or altering the old charter, issued a proposed new Constitution for the United States to replace the 1776–1778 Articles.